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Vowel Points. Dots, Dashes, and other Fun Marks. History of the Hebrew Language. South Semitic. Northeastern Semitic. Northwest Semitic. Arabic Ethiopian. Old Akkadian Babylonian Assyrian. Mari tablets Ugarit tablets Amarna letters. Canaanite. Aramaic. Silver Scroll Amulet.

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Dots dashes and other fun marks

Vowel Points

Dots, Dashes, and other Fun Marks


History of

the Hebrew Language


South

Semitic

Northeastern

Semitic

Northwest

Semitic

  • Arabic

  • Ethiopian

  • Old Akkadian

  • Babylonian

  • Assyrian

  • Mari tablets

  • Ugarit tablets

  • Amarna letters

Canaanite

Aramaic


Silver Scroll

Amulet

Gezer Calendar

Hezekiah Tunnel Inscription


Hebrew developments
Hebrew Developments

Vowel markers added by Massortes

Qumran scrolls show evidence of other sorts of vowel markers

Massoretic text does not show evidence of attempts to iron out textual difficulties


Fr gd s lvd th wrld tht h gv hs nly bgttn sn tht whvr blvs n hm shld nt prsh bt hv trnl lf

Fr Gd s lvd th wrld tht h gv hs ‘nly bgttn sn tht whvr blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf


' blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

“A” as in Father

Kamets

A

<

Pathah

;

_'

“A” as in Hat

;

Seghol

e

“E” as in Met

E

“E” as in They

Tsere

.

I

“I” as in Machine

Hirek

A

u

O

Holem

“O” as in Roll

Shurek

“U” as in Put

U

W

Kibbuts

“U” as in True


Pathah blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

<

_'

'

;

;

Kamets

Seghol

e

.

A

Tsere

Holem

W

.

u

Kibbuts

Hirek

Shurek


Pathah

tyIB; blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf - “House”

Hirek

Pathah


%v,xo; blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf - “Darkness”

Seghol

B Aramaic word for “cluster” (of grapes)


ba' blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Father


~d'a' blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Man


ha' blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Brother


vyai blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Man


tyIB; blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

House


!Be blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Son


rh; blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Mountain


bAj blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Good


~Ay blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Day


lAq blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Voice


~ve blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Name


Name that Name blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf


yr;f' blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Sarai


~Wxn" blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Nahum


Roh a
!roh]a; blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Aaron


Qx c yi
qx'c.yI blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Issac


Hmol v
hmol{v. blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Solomon


Tymil wv
tyMil;Wv blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Shulamite


Ha le
ha'le blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Leah


!yIq; blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Cain


Hy v y
hy"[.v;y> blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Isaiah


rm'T' blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Tamar


![;n"K. blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Canaan


Yir c mi
~yIr'c.mi blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Egypt


rWa blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Ur


lb,B' blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Babylon


Ba am
ba'Am blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Moab


Adgim
!ADgIm. blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Megiddo


L iv wry
~l;iv'Wry> blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Jerusalem


~r'a] blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Aram


Der y
!Der>y: blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Jordan


Yhil a ar b tyviareb
~yhil{a/ ar'B' tyviareB. blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

God

He created

In Beginning

taew> ~yIm;V'h; tae

and

the Heavens

`#r,a'h;

the Earth


Hf n yhil a rm ayow
hf,[]n: ~yhil{a/ rm,aYOw: blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

We will make

God

And He said

Wnmel.c;B. ~d'a'

In our image

man

WnteWmd>K''

Like our likeness


N ybe tyvia hb yaew
^n>yBe tyvia' hb'yaew> blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

Between you

I will put

And enmity

!ybeW hV'aih' !ybeW

And

between

And

between

The woman

H['r>z: !ybeW ^[]r>z:

And

between

Your seed

Her seed


P wvy

bqo[]y: blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

aWh

^p.Wvy>

hT'a;w> varo

he will

bruise your

and you

head

He

`bqe[' WNp,WvT.

you will bruise

his

heel


Whbow whto ht y h r a h w
Whbow" Whto ht'y>h' #r<a'h'w> blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

x:Wrw> ~Aht. ynEP.-l[; %v,xow>

ynEP.-l[; tp,x,r:m. ~yhil{a/

~yIM'h;


Raa yhiy yhil a rm ayow
rAa yhiy> ~yhil{a/ rm,aYOw: blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

rAa-yhiy>w:


Raah ta yhil a ar y w
rAah'-ta, ~yhil{a/ ar>Y:w: blvs ‘n hm shld nt prsh bt hv ‘trnl lf

~yhil{a/ lDEb.Y:w: bAj-yKi

%v,xoh; !ybeW rAah' !yBe


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