The bill of rights
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The Bill of Rights PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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The Bill of Rights. Civil Liberties. Freedoms to think and act without government interference or fear of unfair legal treatment. The 1 st Amendment Protects…. Freedom of religion Freedom of speech Freedom of the press Freedom of assembly Freedom to petition the government.

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The Bill of Rights

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The Bill of Rights


Civil Liberties

  • Freedoms to think and act without government interference or fear of unfair legal treatment


The 1st Amendment Protects…

  • Freedom of religion

  • Freedom of speech

  • Freedom of the press

  • Freedom of assembly

  • Freedom to petition the government


Freedom of Religion

  • Protects the freedom of Americans to practice their faith as they wish

  • Congress may not declare an official religion

  • Government may not favor one religion over another


Freedom of Speech

  • Protects the freedom of Americans to say what is on their minds, in public or private, without fear of punishment by the government

  • Includes the internet, TV and radio


Freedom of the Press

  • Protects the freedom of Americans to be exposed to a wide variety of viewpoints. It also ensures that the government cannot practice censorship


Censorship

  • The banning of printed materials or films due to alarming or offensive ideas


Freedom to Assemble

  • Protects the freedom of Americans to gather in groups for any reason as long as the assemblies are peaceful

  • Includes political parties and labor unions


Freedom to Petition

  • Protects the freedom of Americans to petition the government

  • Includes expressing complaints about community problems or suggestions for improvement


Petition

  • A formal request


Slander

  • spoken untruths that are harmful to someone’s reputation


Libel

  • written untruths that are harmful to someone’s reputation


4th Amendment

  • protects Americans “against unreasonable searches and seizures”

  • Requires any government agent wanting to search your property would need a search warrant


Search Warrant

  • A court order allowing law enforcement officers to search a suspect’s home or business and take specific items as evidence

  • Issued by a judge


5th Amendment

  • Protects the rights of people accused

    • Protects people from being put on trial for a serious federal crime without an indictment

    • Protects people from double jeopardy

    • Protects people from having to testify against themselves (the right to remain silent)

    • Guarantees people due process

    • Limits the government’s power of eminent domain


Indictment

  • a formal charge by a group of citizens called agrand jury

  • is needed before a citizen can be put on trial for a serious federal crime


Grand Jury

  • a group of citizens that review evidence against the accused


Double Jeopardy

  • Putting someone on trial for a crime of which he or she was previously acquitted


Due Process

  • Following established legal procedures


Eminent Domain

  • The right of the government to take private property (usually land) for public use


6th Amendment

  • Requires that a person who has been accused of a crime be told the exact nature of the charges against them

  • The accused is entitled to have a lawyer

  • Guarantees a speedy trial

  • The accused must be given a trial by jury (unless they choose a trial by judge)


8th Amendment

  • Gives the accused the choice to wait for their trial in jail, or to pay bail to remain free while they wait

  • Forbids excessive bail

  • Forbids “cruel and unusual punishment”

    • (Example: 20 years in prison for a parking ticket)


Bail

  • A sum of money used as a security deposit to ensure that an accused person returns for his or her trial


2nd Amendment

  • states rights to keep a well regulated militia

  • individuals to keep and bear arms


Militia

  • Small, local army made up of volunteer soldiers


7th Amendment

  • gives citizens the right to have a jury trial in civil cases over $20 if they choose, though it is not required


Civil Case

  • A lawsuit that involves a disagreement between people rather than a crime.


9th Amendment

  • Citizens have other rights beyond those listed in the Constitution

  • The right to privacy is not mentioned in the Constitution


10th Amendment

  • any powers the Constitution does not directly give to the national government are reserved for the states and the people

  • The United States government can only have the powers the people give to it


Bill of Rights

  • First 10 amendments of the Constitution

  • Only protected the rights of white men


13th Amendment (1865)

  • officially outlawed slavery in the United States


Black Codes

  • Laws passed by Southern states to limit the rights of African Americans


14th Amendment (1868)

  • defined a United States citizen as anyone “born or naturalized in the United States.”

  • required each state to allow its citizens “equal protection of the laws.”

  • used in recent years to protect the rights of people with disabilities as well as other groups who are sometimes not treated fairly.


15th Amendment (1870)

  • states that no state may take away a person’s voting rights on the basis of race, color or previous enslavement.

  • Meant to guarantee suffrage to African Americans

  • Only protected men


Suffrage

  • The right to vote


19th Amendment (1920)

  • protected the right of women to vote in all national and state elections.


Washington D.C.

  • not a state, but an area between Virginia and Maryland where the Federal government operates

  • D.C. stands for the District of Columbia


Poll Taxes

  • A sum of money required of voters before they are permitted to cast a ballot

  • Poll taxes are now illegal


Discrimination

  • unfair treatment based on prejudice against a certain group


Jim Crow Laws

  • required African Americans and whites to be separated in most public places, such as schools


Segregation

  • system of social separation of the races


Civil Rights

  • the rights of full citizenship and equality under the law


National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

  • works through the courts to challenge laws and traditions that deny African Americans the rights given to them by the Constitution


Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

  • Civil rights leader that organized boycotts, marches, and demonstrations to promote the civil rights movement

  • Believed in nonviolent resistance, or the peaceful protests of unfair laws


Freedom Riders

  • White and African American’s who traveled on buses to protest segregation


Affirmative Action

  • programs intended to make up for past discrimination by helping minority groups and women gain access to jobs and opportunities

  • Encouraged the hiring and promoting minorities and women


Racial Profiling

  • singling out an individual as a suspect due to appearance of ethnicity


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