Case hadramawt improved traditional engineering
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6.6. CASE: HADRAMAWT IMPROVED TRADITIONAL ENGINEERING. YEMEN. WADI HADRAMAWT. Rainfall isohyets. Hadramawt: special characteristics. Extremely low rainfall (50 mm/year) Very irregular and often heavy floods

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CASE: HADRAMAWT IMPROVED TRADITIONAL ENGINEERING

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6.6

CASE: HADRAMAWT IMPROVED TRADITIONAL ENGINEERING


YEMEN

WADI HADRAMAWT

Rainfall isohyets


Hadramawt: special characteristics

  • Extremely low rainfall (50 mm/year)

  • Very irregular and often heavy floods

  • Special efforts to avoid that large floods destroy command area and residential area) much attention for spillways(

  • Groundwater and hence recharge is important


MANY LARGE FARMER-BUILT STRUCTURES IN HADRAMAWT


Al Powirigat Traditional Dyke

Water Master

In many systems the traditionalstructures have been improvedthrough a mix of modern and traditional techniques


Special structures

Diversion structures

  • Bunds and dykes

  • Traditional abutments

  • Spillways

  • Recharge bunds

    Command area structures

  • Water distribution structures

  • Field to field overflow structures

  • Low flow field intakes


DIVERSION STRUCTURES

  • Bunds and dykes

  • Traditional abutments

  • Spillways

  • Recharge bunds


Traditional dyke at Hadramaut


Traditional diversion dyke – at angle with the flow of the river


TRADITIONAL DYKE: SPILLWAY/ OVERFLOW


SPILLWAYWITH

STEPPEDSTONES

AL ROMALYATRADITIONALWEIRREINFORCEDWITH CONCRETE


FLOOD CHANNEL INTAKE

TRADITIONAL ABUTMENT

BREACH-ABLE EARTHENBUND TO BREAK IN HIGHFLOODS AND RELEASE FLOOD WATER INTO THERIVER


TRADITIONAL ABUTMENT


LIME MORTAR STRUCTURES


TRADITIONAL INTAKE IN HADRAMUAT


MOZA SIBHAM DYKE REINFORCED WITH

TRADITIONAL ABUTTMENTS


MODERN ABUTMENT FOLLOWING TRADITIONAL DESIGN


COMBINED GABION SPILLWAY WITH TRADITIONAL ABUTTMENT


GABION SPILLWAY


Gabion spillway and traditional intake at gar-Sudan area (at wadi Dowan)Hadramawt


TRADITIONAL LOW RECHARGE WEIR

TO SLOW DOWN AND SPREAD FLOODS


COMMAND AREA STRUCTURES

  • Water distribution structures

  • Field to field flow structures

  • Low flow field intakes


WATER DISTRIBUTION:

WATER IS DIVIDED PROPORTIONALLY IN SMALL CHANNELS


WATER DISTRIBUTION:

GATES USED ON SOME OF THE SMALL CHANNELS

TO CLOSE SUPPLIES AFTER AREA IS SERVED


FIELD OVERFLOW STRUCTURE


FIELD TO FIELD FLOW STRUCTURES (SPILLWAY)


FIELD OUTLET STRUCTURE


FIELD TO FIELD FLOW STRUCTURE

(INLET OR OUTLET


UNDERFLOW STRUCTURE TO

CAPTURE VERY SMALL FLOWS


FIELD SYPHON FOR FIELDSHIGH ABUTMENT


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