Color vision. Outlines. What is color Retinal circuitry for color vision Several ways to label retinal cells. Color history: discovery of color. Isaac Newton. Color history: discovery of color. Reflection makes colors. Retina anatomy of human being. Outer nuclear layer.
Outer nuclear layer
Outer plexiform layer
Inner nuclear layer
Inner plexiform layer
Ganglion cell layer
L-cone or M-cone
Color opponency mechanism
midget ganglion cells
small bistratified ganglion cells
Review by Dacey, 2000
Review of Masland, 2012
a dichromatic mammal
To dye fill a cell:
visualize the cell via quick and rough nucleus staining
A microelectrode filled with fluorescent dye is placed carefully in contact with the soma
Break into the cell and apply current. “injecting fluorescent dye into the cell electronically”.
How big is 10μm? The width (diameter) of a human hair ranges from 0.017 to 0.181 mm.
Movie showing iontophoresis of dye into retinal ganglion cell
3. Genetic tags: GFP, YFP…
2008 Nobel prize winners Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie, and Roger Tsien,
Genetic tags: YFP
“Most of my knowledge came from self-study,” says Dr. Shimomura. “If you find an interesting subject, study it through to the finish. If you confront difficulties, overcome them. Don’t be discouraged. There are always difficulties in research.”