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The harder you try, the dumber you look. FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687). Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22) . Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire. Objects seem to fall toward center of earth.

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The harder you try the dumber you look

The harder you try, the dumber you look


The harder you try the dumber you look

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire

Objects seem to fall toward center of earth

Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles

Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ.

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion

5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits

Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers”

Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part

New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76)

Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66)

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543)

Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular

Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method

New questions & theories about universe:

Why don’t planets fly out of orbit?

Why don’t planets crash together Centrifugal force

Descarte’s law of motion (inertia)

Isaac Newton fuses these ideas w/calculus into theory of universal gravity Same laws apply on earth as in heavens

Scientific method fusing math, experiment & Aristotelian logic  Belief we can understand, predict & manipulate laws of nature

Scientific basis for rapid progress of Industrial Rev. in 1800s (FC. 117)


The harder you try the dumber you look

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)

New findings contradicting Galen

Explanations in context of Galen

Vesalius (1514-1564):

Paracelsus (1493-1541):

Taught in vernacular

Said factors outside the body caused disease

Taught fr. experience

Did his own dissections

Anatomy book set standard of accuracy

Made own instruments

Mounting evidence contradicting Galen:

Blood flows fr. arteries to veins & back toward heart

Valves that prevent flow of blood out of the heart

Air doesn’t flow naturally from the lungs to the heart

William Harvey’s synthesis & book (1628) show blood constantly recirculates Further research on human anatomy


The harder you try the dumber you look

An Age of Scientific Wonders

People spend an evening studying new geographic discoveries


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“Nature and its laws lay hid in night

God said ….


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“Nature and its laws

Lay hid in night

God said ‘Let Newton be,’

And all was light“

This short poem by Alexander Pope summarizes well the reverence in which people in the Enlightenment held Isaac Newton.

As a result of Newton’s work and the growing belief in humanity’s ability to understand, predict, and manipulate the laws of nature, science nearly assumed the status of a religion in the 1700s. It was an age of scientific wonders, not just in astronomy, but also in the other sciences as well.


The harder you try the dumber you look

The big name in astronomy in the 1700s was William Herschel, who made some 2500 discoveries, such as the planet Uranus, the Milky Way’s vastness, and the Andromeda Nebula. While Uranus had been observed previously, it was considered a star. Herschel, however, judged it to be a comet because it moved too fast in relation to other stars. Because of its nearly circular orbit, it was eventually classified as a planet.

Because of its nearly featureless appearance, Uranus is considered the most boring of the planets.


The harder you try the dumber you look

Calcuating the speed of light. The Danish astronomer, Ole Christensen Rømer first calculated the speed of light by measuring the time it took for Io, one of the moons of Jupiter, to reappear from behind the planet. When his calculations were 8-10 minutes off from his prediction, he concluded the difference was either due to variations in the speed of light or the different distances between Jupiter and earth at the two times. Figuring (correctly) that the speed of light was constant, he came up with the figure of 138,000 miles per second. Although his figure was 48,000 miles too slow, his reasoning was correct and, along with Herschel’s discoveries, helped give a much bigger impression of the size of the universe.

Below: The Louvre & Alps caught together in some kind of space/time warp triggered by incorrect calculations of the speed of light. Note the panicking 17th century crowds


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A major problem for transoceanic navigation was time-keeping on ships so that navigators could calculate longitude. Finally the Royal Society of London offered a large reward of £25,000 to anyone who could solve this problem.

Left: Huygens’ pendulum clock which helped lead to Harrison’s invention of the chronometer.


The harder you try the dumber you look

In 1761, this man, John Harrison, won the contest with the invention of the chronometer, building upon Huygens’pendulum clock to create the grasshopper escapement, thus opening a whole new age in global navigation.


The harder you try the dumber you look

Milkmaids and cowpox

Edward Jenner’s inoculation against smallpox, although drawing upon older practices by the Chinese and other cultures, was the first successful inoculation against a major disease in Europe. However, it would not be until the 1800’s that germ theory would be developed so that doctors actually understood how diseases worked. The line of reasoning leading to this discovery was the observation that milkmaids who contracted cowpox, a milder disease similar to smallpox, would henceforth be immune to the more deadly disease.


The harder you try the dumber you look

Jenner’s inoculation consisted of scraping the pus from underneath cowpox scabs and introducing it through a small cut in healthy subject. While they may get cowpox, they were immune, or at least resistant, to smallpox for much, if not the rest of, their lives.


The harder you try the dumber you look

Naturally, such a treatment met with initial popular resistance but was gradually accepted. Thomas Jefferson gained public acceptance for vaccination by having his entire household, including slaves, inoculated, while Napoleon ordered vaccination for his entire army. In 1979, the World Health Organization declared smallpox extinct (except for a few specimens kept in selected labs). While plagues and epidemics would grab the headlines, it is estimated that before Jenner, smallpox was consistently responsible for as many as one in fourteen deaths year in and year out. As a result, some people claim that Jenner saved more lives than anyone else in history.

Left: a smallpox victim from Bangladesh in 1973


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Despite Jenner’s work, the theory of Humours and the use of purgatives would still dominate medicine for years. Below: Jan AntoonGaremijn, The Enema, 1778


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One of the landmark experiments in chemistry was performed by Antoine Lavoisier who created water, which Aristotle claimed was an element, by combining two alleged compounds, oxygen and hydrogen, in this jar and striking a spark. Of course, creating an “element” by combining two “compounds” by definition is impossible, which discredited the Aristotelian theory of the elements and set the stage for the revolution in chemistry in the 1800s.


The harder you try the dumber you look

One of the landmark events of the Enlightenment was the publication in 1751 of Denis Diderot’s Encyclopedie. Its purpose was to summarize in its 36 volumes the rapidly expanding fields of human knowledge that the Scientific Revolution was creating. It covered a wide and diverse array of topics ranging from history and philosophy to practical arts and crafts such as stitching nets, infantry training, & handwriting.


The harder you try the dumber you look

More than 200 scholars assisted in this work, which included 11 volumes of plates to illustrate its topics. Clockwise from below: measuring the dimensions of the Laocoonand The Discus Thrower, a paper mill, and an alchemist’s shop with a table of elements they imagined.


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With the vast numbers of new plants being discovered in Europe and abroad came a growing need for a system of classifying all this new data. That system was the brainchild of Carolus Linnaeus, who identified 12,100 species of plants himself, dividing them by sexual characteristics and placing them into 24 categories. Out of this came his system of binary nomenclature: giving first the genus or family name and second the species name. Linnaeus' SystemaNaturae would go through twelve editions in his lifetime.

Please

Come

Over

For

Gross

Sponges

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species


The harder you try the dumber you look

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock

(1656)

->Harrison's chronometer

(1761)

- Carolus Linnaeus: binary

nomenclature

GenusOryctolagus

Speciescuniculus

Genusgallus

Speciesdomesticus


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Bovus Duocorpores

Felinus

Incognito

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock

(1656)

->Harrison's chronometer

(1761)

- Carolus Linnaeus: binary

nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

Ursus Saluticus

Pisces Major


The harder you try the dumber you look

Theory of evolution. In the realm of Natural History, Georges Louis Leclerc Buffon published a 36-volume Natural History (1749-88). Among his more radical ideas: animals vary according to their natural environments; the earth is 75,000 years old, rather than 6,000; animals have changed since creation and climate change has been partly responsible. He did stop short of claiming common descent with apes (even though he had a trained chimp). The University of Paris forced Buffon to issue a public apology for such preposterous ideas. Despite that, he is seen as the most influential name in natural history in the 1700s and a precursor to the idea of evolution.


The harder you try the dumber you look

In the age’s spirit of scientific experimentation, a group of people watches a lark suffocate under a bell jar as it is deprived of oxygen in Joseph Wright’s An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump. The bird being suffocated is a cockatoo, probably a family pet based on the older daughter’s reaction.If only it were a pigeon.


The harder you try the dumber you look

“Blinded by Science”

Nobles on a scientific outing. Notice how they are

looking through the wrong ends of their telescopes.


The harder you try the dumber you look

Even the most brilliant minds of the day could have some rather eccentric beliefs, at least by today’s standards. For example, Isaac Newton was a firm believer in alchemy and wasted a good deal of time trying to create gold out of base metals. Therefore it shouldn’t come as a surprise that many people were duped into believing the most outrageous claims, be they ridiculous scientific theories, financial scams, or just reports of women giving birth to rabbits.

Below: A giant lens constructed for studying combustion. In 1738, the fire generated by this contraption burned a hole through the earth so that people in Europe could jump in and emerge on the other side in Australia. Luckily, the newly formed EPA had the hole filled up before any permanent damage was done beyond the creation of a mutant species known as the platypus.


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The Great Lunar Man-Bat Hoax


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In 1835, a reporter, Richard A. Locke,under the false name of Dr. Andrew Grant, a supposed companion of the astronomer, John Herschel, published a six part article in the New York Sun describing life on the moon, including unicorns, bipedal beavers and bat-winged humanoids as seen through Herschel’s giant telescope. Locke also claimed

That Herschel believed there was life on other planets, including the sun, whose people had abnormally large heads, since small heads would explode from the heat.


The harder you try the dumber you look

Unfortunately, according to Locke, he couldn’t show these wonders to anyone because the sun caused Herschel’s giant telescope to act as a burning lens that caught the observatory on fire and burned it down.

Meanwhile, circulation for the New York Sun skyrocketed, establishing it as a major newspaper from the time on. Although the hoax was revealed several weeks later, the Sun never retracted the story.

.


The harder you try the dumber you look

Yet another unfortunate hazard of life before the Enlightenment: giant chickens kidnapping children and trying to hatch them.


The harder you try the dumber you look

A popular pseudo-science of the age was physiognomy, and its offshoot, phrenology, which claimed to tell a person’s character by his or her facial features and how they compared to other animals. For example, according to the 18th century phrenologist, Johann Lavater, the eagle’s “lightning glance” showed a regal character, the camel’s jaw showed dullness & lack of courage. The man’s strained grimace revealed his stupidity, while the elephant’s broad forehead indicated a retentive memory. Phrenologists claimed to have identified what characteristics were located in various parts of the brain, as seen by the chart on the right.


The harder you try the dumber you look

A scam of a different sort was that by Mary Tofts who allegedly gave birth to rabbits. Her story was that, while pregnant, she had an intense craving for roast rabbit. Even after a miscarriage, she still was obsessed with the little critters until one day in1726 she “gave birth” to nine of them. Based on her story, doctors explained the births as a result of "maternal impressions", claiming a pregnant woman's experiences could be imprinted directly on a fetus at conception & cause birth defects. The “rabbit woman” confessed only after a porter admitted to being part of the hoax.


The harder you try the dumber you look

A cartoon by William Hogarth satirizing the South Sea Bubble, one of the biggest financial swindles of the 18th century, with Satan to the left urging on the human greed and gullibility.


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Another major financial bubble of the 1700s that popped with disastrous results for investors was the Mississippi Bubble

Galli domestici


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The “Birth” of Electricity


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Let’s start with the heavy plow, which dramatically improved agricultural production…


The harder you try the dumber you look

Let’s start with the heavy plow, which dramatically improved agricultural production…

Which led to dramatic population growth in Europe…


The harder you try the dumber you look

Let’s start with the heavy plow, which dramatically improved agricultural production…

Which led to dramatic population growth in Europe…

That could support the rise of towns…


The harder you try the dumber you look

Let’s start with the heavy plow, which dramatically improved agricultural production…

Which led to dramatic population growth in Europe…

That could support the rise of towns…

That led to the rise of kings…

Louis XI of France


The harder you try the dumber you look

Let’s start with the heavy plow, which dramatically improved agricultural production…

Which led to dramatic population growth in Europe…

That could support the rise of towns…

That led to the rise of kings…

That led to bigger armies wars between nation states…


The harder you try the dumber you look

That led to the development of gunpowder…


The harder you try the dumber you look

That led to the need for more $$$$$...


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That led to a mining boom in Germany, such as the one seen in this German mine near Joachimsthal in late 1400s…


The harder you try the dumber you look

But this led to another problem: water seepage in mines and the fact that a suction pump could only raise water 32 feet. But why? A student of Galieo’s, Evangelista Toricelli, thought he had the answer: the weight of air pressure pushing down on the water.


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Since 32-foot long tubes were unwieldy, Toricelli used 6-foot tubes of mercury, which is fourteen times the weight of water. He upended these tubes in a vat of mercury, calculating the air pressure would stop the mercury from dropping at about 30 inches (one-fourteenth of 32 feet). Not only was he correct in that prediction, but also that what was left at the top of the upended tube was a vacuum, which Aristotle and Galileo thought were theoretically impossible, because an accelerating object in a vacuum would continue accelerating indefinitely to infinite speed, which is ridiculous.

Not only had Toricelli invented the barometer, he also triggered all sorts of experiments with vacuums and, by extension, electricity.


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One experiment was Von Guericke’s demonstration of the power of the vacuum in 1650 where he had two teams of horses try to pull apart two metal hemispheres joined together by a vacuum. They couldn’t do it.

Even more intriguing, what would happen if you spun a barometer around in the air?


The harder you try the dumber you look

That’s what this man, the famous French astronomer, Jean Picard, did while strolling down a Paris street in 1675. The result: the barometer started glowing, what people called the barometric light or the “glow of life.” What Picard had done was generate an electrical charge, which he didn’t understand. But it still excited people all over Europe and inspired all sorts of fun experiments with primitive electrical generators, such as Hauksbee’s Influence Machine.


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People even went on tour, putting on cheap “dog & pony” shows with Hauksbee’s Influence Machine, demonstrating the power of electricity. Such traveling shows were popular in the 1700s. A common stage trick was to charge up a girl on stage and have a man from the audience come up to kiss her, giving him a shock that would knock him off his feet. This also inspired more substantial experiments with electricity.


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One serious problem concerned all the fires and explosions (of powder magazines) caused by lightning strikes. Previously, a common belief and practice on how to drive off lightning storms was to ring a town’s church bells. Unfortunately, a bunch of young men hanging from giant pieces of metal in the highest part of town led to a lot of “dead ringers” (which, by the way, is not the true etymology of the expression).

After hundreds of deaths caused by lightning hitting church bells over the years, the French government outlawed this practice.

Still, the problem of lightning starting fires, and especially detonating towns’ powder magazines, persisted.


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Along came Ben Franklin with the idea of flying a kite with a metal key attached to the string during an electrical storm. Franklin was lucky and went on to invent the lightning rod. Things didn’t work out so well for a Russian who was also trying to show the connection between lightning and electricity by carrying a metal pole in an open field during an electrical storm.


The harder you try the dumber you look

Besides saving people from a lot of lightning strikes, Franklin’s lightning rod inspired a new fashion trend in lightning rod bonnets & umbrellas. There are no reliable figures on how many lives they saved.


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Another use for electricity was therapeutic, people believing it could solve medical problems. For example, there was James Graham's Temple of Health with its celestial or Magnetico-electrico bed on top of an electrical field on which childless couples could conceive (with the help of exotic dancers). More commonly “therapists” would connect electrodes to the ailing parts of patients’ bodies and zap them. Even little girls weren’t safe from these quacks.


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Nor were animals safe from electrocution. Ben Franklin reportedly tried to electrocute a turkey as a more humane way of preparing for Thanksgiving, but nearly electrocuted himself instead.


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Then there was Franz Mesmer’s “animal magnetism”, which combined the “therapeutic” effects of electricity with hypnotism. Mesmer believed that the universe is pervaded by a mysterious substance he called “animal magnetism”, and that illness was caused when it was out of balance. Therefore, he would hook ailing patients up to a battery, then “mesmerize” (i.e., hypnotize) them while also charging them up.


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Mesmer, like Ben Franklin (below) also had a glass harmonica, variously known as a hydrocrystalophone, or hydrodaktulopsychicharmonica, which translated from Greek meant “harmonica to produce music for the soul by fingers dipped in water,” to provide ethereal and calming music.


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Patients swore by Mesmer’s treatments. Although he claimed it was the electrical treatments that cured his patients, it was probably the post-hypnotic suggestions that came with his “Mesmerism”. An investigative committee headed by the famous chemist, Lavoisier, discredited Mesmer as a fraud, even his claim that he could magnetize the sun. As off as his claims about “animal magnetism” were, his work with mesmerism inspired later research in the therapeutic use of hypnotism.

Left: A satirical view of Mesmer’s claim he could magnetize the sun.


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Phrenology and elecro-magnetic therapy continued throughout the 19th and into the 20th centuries, as seen by these various devices from the late 1800s used to stimulate the brain.


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Different visions of Swift’s Laputa from Gulliver’s Travels, a satire on human nature. His chapter on Laputa described a world ruled by scientists totally cut off from the practical realities of life.


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In Swift’s Laputa, scientists perform such experiments as pumping a dog’s anus with a bellows to cure its cholic, building houses from the top down, and and trying to extract sunbeams from a cucumber.


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Gulliver’s last voyage is to the land of the Houyhnhnms, home of a race of highly evolved horses and disgusting people (Yahoos) who do such things as pelt passers by with feces.


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Another, even more biting satire by Swift was A Modest Proposal Preventing the Children of Poor People in Ireland from Being a Burden to Their Parents or Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Public, which suggests the Irish sell their children to rich British ladies and gentlemen for food. He sets up his readers by describing the plight of the Irish poor, and then shocks them with his outrageous suggestion. Not only that, he sustains the irony by discussing ways to cook these children. "A young healthy child well nursed, is, at a year old, a most delicious nourishing and wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked, or boiled; and I make no doubt that it will equally serve in a fricassee, or a ragoust.”


The harder you try the dumber you look

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Renaissance & growing interest in ancient Greek Philosophy (FC. 76)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Rise of Feudal Monarchies in W. Europe (FC. 68)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)

Kings challenge authority of pope in 1300s (FC. 72)

Scientific revolution discredits Church’s views on the Universe & raises belief in Humanity’s ability to reason (FC. 97)

People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance

Rulers claim Divine Right of Kings & authority over Church

Growing belief among intellectuals in replacing blind faith with faith and reason as the basis for religion

Reason & faith, with reason being dominant

Finally rely on reason alone

DEISM: philosophy popular among intellectuals & based on ancient Greek Epicureanism:

God exists, but is detached from this world like a watch maker who winds up the universe & lets it go

Religious truth can only be found through reason, not divine inspiration or clerical authority

Universal moral laws exist in all cultures around the globe, not just in Christian Europe

Miracles do not exist, only natural phenomena we have not yet found reasons for

Downplayed role of God in this world Humans have responsibility & power to solve their own social & economic problems (FC. 100)


The harder you try the dumber you look

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- Wm Hershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Protestant Ref’s political & religious impact?


The harder you try the dumber you look

Impact on people’s attitudes toward religion?

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- Wm Hershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)


The harder you try the dumber you look

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- Wm Hershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)

People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance


The harder you try the dumber you look

A cartoon satirizing the pluralist parsons who had control of several parishes at once, gathering their revenues while not being able to take care of all their spiritual needs. Unfortunately, this propaganda backfired, since many poor people, believing that parsons actually could inflate themselves to huge sizes and fly, gave huge offerings on Sundays as protection money.


The harder you try the dumber you look

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- Wm Hershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Impact of the Renaissance on Science?

Renaissance & growing interest in ancient Greek Philosophy (FC. 76)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)

People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance


The harder you try the dumber you look

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- Wm Hershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Renaissance & growing interest in ancient Greek Philosophy (FC. 76)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)

Scientific revolution’s impact on the Church?

People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance


The harder you try the dumber you look

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- Wm Hershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Renaissance & growing interest in ancient Greek Philosophy (FC. 76)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)

Scientific revolution discredits Church’s views on the Universe Raises belief in?

People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance


The harder you try the dumber you look

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- Wm Hershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Renaissance & growing interest in ancient Greek Philosophy (FC. 76)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)

Scientific revolution discredits Church’s views on the Universe & raises belief in Humanity’s ability to reason (FC. 97)

People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance


The harder you try the dumber you look

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- Wm Hershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Renaissance & growing interest in ancient Greek Philosophy (FC. 76)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Rise of Feudal Monarchies in W. Europe (FC. 68)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)

Relations b/w Kings & the Church?

Scientific revolution discredits Church’s views on the Universe & raises belief in Humanity’s ability to reason (FC. 97)

People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance


The harder you try the dumber you look

Kings even claim?

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- Wm Hershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Renaissance & growing interest in ancient Greek Philosophy (FC. 76)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Rise of Feudal Monarchies in W. Europe (FC. 68)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)

Kings challenge authority of pope in 1300s (FC. 72)

Scientific revolution discredits Church’s views on the Universe & raises belief in Humanity’s ability to reason (FC. 97)

People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance

Rulers claim Divine Right of Kings & authority over Church


The harder you try the dumber you look

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- Wm Hershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Renaissance & growing interest in ancient Greek Philosophy (FC. 76)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Rise of Feudal Monarchies in W. Europe (FC. 68)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)

Kings challenge authority of pope in 1300s (FC. 72)

Scientific revolution discredits Church’s views on the Universe & raises belief in Humanity’s ability to reason (FC. 97)

People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance

Rulers claim Divine Right of Kings & authority over Church


The harder you try the dumber you look

Growing belief among intellectuals in replacing blind faith with?

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- Wm Hershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Renaissance & growing interest in ancient Greek Philosophy (FC. 76)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Rise of Feudal Monarchies in W. Europe (FC. 68)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)

Kings challenge authority of pope in 1300s (FC. 72)

Scientific revolution discredits Church’s views on the Universe & raises belief in Humanity’s ability to reason (FC. 97)

People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance

Rulers claim Divine Right of Kings & authority over Church


The harder you try the dumber you look

Next stage?

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- Wm Hershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Renaissance & growing interest in ancient Greek Philosophy (FC. 76)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Rise of Feudal Monarchies in W. Europe (FC. 68)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)

Kings challenge authority of pope in 1300s (FC. 72)

Scientific revolution discredits Church’s views on the Universe & raises belief in Humanity’s ability to reason (FC. 97)

People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance

Rulers claim Divine Right of Kings & authority over Church

Growing belief among intellectuals in replacing blind faith with faith and reason as the basis for religion


The harder you try the dumber you look

Finally rely on?

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- Wm Hershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Renaissance & growing interest in ancient Greek Philosophy (FC. 76)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Rise of Feudal Monarchies in W. Europe (FC. 68)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)

Kings challenge authority of pope in 1300s (FC. 72)

Scientific revolution discredits Church’s views on the Universe & raises belief in Humanity’s ability to reason (FC. 97)

People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance

Rulers claim Divine Right of Kings & authority over Church

Growing belief among intellectuals in replacing blind faith with faith and reason as the basis for religion

Reason & faith, with reason being dominant


The harder you try the dumber you look

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- Wm Hershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Renaissance & growing interest in ancient Greek Philosophy (FC. 76)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Rise of Feudal Monarchies in W. Europe (FC. 68)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)

Kings challenge authority of pope in 1300s (FC. 72)

Scientific revolution discredits Church’s views on the Universe & raises belief in Humanity’s ability to reason (FC. 97)

People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance

Rulers claim Divine Right of Kings & authority over Church

Growing belief among intellectuals in replacing blind faith with faith and reason as the basis for religion

Reason & faith, with reason being dominant

Finally rely on reason alone

New philosophy?

God exists, but is detached from this world like a watch maker who winds up the universe & lets it go

Religious truth can only be found through reason, not divine inspiration or clerical authority

Universal moral laws exist in all cultures around the globe, not just in Christian Europe

Miracles do not exist, only natural phenomena we have not yet found reasons for


The harder you try the dumber you look

What about god?

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- WmHershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Renaissance & growing interest in ancient Greek Philosophy (FC. 76)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Rise of Feudal Monarchies in W. Europe (FC. 68)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)

Kings challenge authority of pope in 1300s (FC. 72)

Scientific revolution discredits Church’s views on the Universe & raises belief in Humanity’s ability to reason (FC. 97)

People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance

Rulers claim Divine Right of Kings & authority over Church

Growing belief among intellectuals in replacing blind faith with faith and reason as the basis for religion

Annuit coeptis” roughly translated means: He approves (or has approved) [our] undertaking(s)"

Reason & faith, with reason being dominant

Finally rely on reason alone

DEISM: philosophy popular among intellectuals & based on ancient Greek Epicureanism:

God exists, but is detached from this world like a watch maker who winds up the universe & lets it go

Religious truth can only be found through reason, not divine inspiration or clerical authority

Universal moral laws exist in all cultures around the globe, not just in Christian Europe

Miracles do not exist, only natural phenomena we have not yet found reasons for


The harder you try the dumber you look

Religious truth can only be found through?

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- Wm Hershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Below: the astronomical clock in Prague showing how medieval people conceived of the universe in mechanistic terms.

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Renaissance & growing interest in ancient Greek Philosophy (FC. 76)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Rise of Feudal Monarchies in W. Europe (FC. 68)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)

Kings challenge authority of pope in 1300s (FC. 72)

Scientific revolution discredits Church’s views on the Universe & raises belief in Humanity’s ability to reason (FC. 97)

People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance

Rulers claim Divine Right of Kings & authority over Church

Growing belief among intellectuals in replacing blind faith with faith and reason as the basis for religion

Reason & faith, with reason being dominant

Finally rely on reason alone

DEISM: philosophy popular among intellectuals & based on ancient Greek Epicureanism:

God exists, but is detached from this world like a watch maker who winds up the universe & lets it go

Religious truth can only be found through reason, not divine inspiration or clerical authority

Universal moral laws exist in all cultures around the globe, not just in Christian Europe

Miracles do not exist, only natural phenomena we have not yet found reasons for


The harder you try the dumber you look

Morality?

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- Wm Hershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Deism

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Renaissance & growing interest in ancient Greek Philosophy (FC. 76)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Rise of Feudal Monarchies in W. Europe (FC. 68)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)

Kings challenge authority of pope in 1300s (FC. 72)

Scientific revolution discredits Church’s views on the Universe & raises belief in Humanity’s ability to reason (FC. 97)

People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance

Rulers claim Divine Right of Kings & authority over Church

Growing belief among intellectuals in replacing blind faith with faith and reason as the basis for religion

Reason & faith, with reason being dominant

Finally rely on reason alone

DEISM: philosophy popular among intellectuals & based on ancient Greek Epicureanism:

God exists, but is detached from this world like a watch maker who winds up the universe & lets it go

Religious truth can only be found through reason, not divine inspiration or clerical authority

Universal moral laws exist in all cultures around the globe, not just in Christian Europe

Miracles do not exist, only natural phenomena we have not yet found reasons for


The harder you try the dumber you look

Miracles?

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- Wm Hershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Deism

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Renaissance & growing interest in ancient Greek Philosophy (FC. 76)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Rise of Feudal Monarchies in W. Europe (FC. 68)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)

Kings challenge authority of pope in 1300s (FC. 72)

Scientific revolution discredits Church’s views on the Universe & raises belief in Humanity’s ability to reason (FC. 97)

People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance

Rulers claim Divine Right of Kings & authority over Church

Growing belief among intellectuals in replacing blind faith with faith and reason as the basis for religion

Reason & faith, with reason being dominant

Finally rely on reason alone

DEISM: philosophy popular among intellectuals & based on ancient Greek Epicureanism:

God exists, but is detached from this world like a watch maker who winds up the universe & lets it go

Religious truth can only be found through reason, not divine inspiration or clerical authority

Universal moral laws exist in all cultures around the globe, not just in Christian Europe

Miracles do not exist, only natural phenomena we have not yet found reasons for


The harder you try the dumber you look

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- Wm Hershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Deism

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Renaissance & growing interest in ancient Greek Philosophy (FC. 76)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Rise of Feudal Monarchies in W. Europe (FC. 68)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)

Kings challenge authority of pope in 1300s (FC. 72)

Scientific revolution discredits Church’s views on the Universe & raises belief in Humanity’s ability to reason (FC. 97)

People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance

Rulers claim Divine Right of Kings & authority over Church

Growing belief among intellectuals in replacing blind faith with faith and reason as the basis for religion

Reason & faith, with reason being dominant

Finally rely on reason alone

DEISM: philosophy popular among intellectuals & based on ancient Greek Epicureanism:

God exists, but is detached from this world like a watch maker who winds up the universe & lets it go

Religious truth can only be found through reason, not divine inspiration or clerical authority

Universal moral laws exist in all cultures around the globe, not just in Christian Europe

Miracles do not exist, only natural phenomena we have not yet found reasons for


The harder you try the dumber you look

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- Wm Hershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Deism

- Critical Deists vs.church:

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Renaissance & growing interest in ancient Greek Philosophy (FC. 76)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Rise of Feudal Monarchies in W. Europe (FC. 68)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)

Kings challenge authority of pope in 1300s (FC. 72)

Scientific revolution discredits Church’s views on the Universe & raises belief in Humanity’s ability to reason (FC. 97)

People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance

Rulers claim Divine Right of Kings & authority over Church

Growing belief among intellectuals in replacing blind faith with faith and reason as the basis for religion

Reason & faith, with reason being dominant

Finally rely on reason alone

DEISM: philosophy popular among intellectuals & based on ancient Greek Epicureanism:

God exists, but is detached from this world like a watch maker who winds up the universe & lets it go

Religious truth can only be found through reason, not divine inspiration or clerical authority

Universal moral laws exist in all cultures around the globe, not just in Christian Europe

Miracles do not exist, only natural phenomena we have not yet found reasons for


The harder you try the dumber you look

S

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- Wm Hershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Deism

- Critical Deists vs.church:

Moses wrote ~own death,

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Renaissance & growing interest in ancient Greek Philosophy (FC. 76)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Rise of Feudal Monarchies in W. Europe (FC. 68)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)

Kings challenge authority of pope in 1300s (FC. 72)

Scientific revolution discredits Church’s views on the Universe & raises belief in Humanity’s ability to reason (FC. 97)

People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance

Rulers claim Divine Right of Kings & authority over Church

Growing belief among intellectuals in replacing blind faith with faith and reason as the basis for religion

Reason & faith, with reason being dominant

Finally rely on reason alone

DEISM: philosophy popular among intellectuals & based on ancient Greek Epicureanism:

God exists, but is detached from this world like a watch maker who winds up the universe & lets it go

Religious truth can only be found through reason, not divine inspiration or clerical authority

Universal moral laws exist in all cultures around the globe, not just in Christian Europe

Miracles do not exist, only natural phenomena we have not yet found reasons for


The harder you try the dumber you look

S

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- Wm Hershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Deism

- Critical Deists vs.church:

Moses wrote ~own death,

- Voltaire: Bastille 2x, left Pr.

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Renaissance & growing interest in ancient Greek Philosophy (FC. 76)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Rise of Feudal Monarchies in W. Europe (FC. 68)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)

Kings challenge authority of pope in 1300s (FC. 72)

Scientific revolution discredits Church’s views on the Universe & raises belief in Humanity’s ability to reason (FC. 97)

People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance

Rulers claim Divine Right of Kings & authority over Church

Growing belief among intellectuals in replacing blind faith with faith and reason as the basis for religion

Reason & faith, with reason being dominant

Finally rely on reason alone

DEISM: philosophy popular among intellectuals & based on ancient Greek Epicureanism:

God exists, but is detached from this world like a watch maker who winds up the universe & lets it go

Religious truth can only be found through reason, not divine inspiration or clerical authority

Universal moral laws exist in all cultures around the globe, not just in Christian Europe

Miracles do not exist, only natural phenomena we have not yet found reasons for


The harder you try the dumber you look

Voltaire first came to prominence when he posthumously took up the case of Jean Calas, a Huguenot wrongly executed for murdering his son for converting to Catholicism. Even after a long and illustrious career, Voltaire said this was the greatest thing he ever did, since it exposed the cruelty and hypocrisy of the Church.


The harder you try the dumber you look

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- Wm Hershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Deism

- Critical Deists vs.church:

Moses wrote ~own death,

- Voltaire: Bastille 2x, left Pr.

- Philos. Dictionary

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Renaissance & growing interest in ancient Greek Philosophy (FC. 76)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Rise of Feudal Monarchies in W. Europe (FC. 68)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)

Kings challenge authority of pope in 1300s (FC. 72)

Scientific revolution discredits Church’s views on the Universe & raises belief in Humanity’s ability to reason (FC. 97)

People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance

Rulers claim Divine Right of Kings & authority over Church

Growing belief among intellectuals in replacing blind faith with faith and reason as the basis for religion

Reason & faith, with reason being dominant

Finally rely on reason alone

DEISM: philosophy popular among intellectuals & based on ancient Greek Epicureanism:

God exists, but is detached from this world like a watch maker who winds up the universe & lets it go

Religious truth can only be found through reason, not divine inspiration or clerical authority

Universal moral laws exist in all cultures around the globe, not just in Christian Europe

Miracles do not exist, only natural phenomena we have not yet found reasons for


The harder you try the dumber you look

VOLTAIRE’S WIT AND WISDOM

"Theology amuses me. There we find Man's insanity in all its plenitude”


The harder you try the dumber you look

VOLTAIRE’S WIT AND WISDOM

"Theology amuses me. There we find Man's insanity in all its plenitude”

"Killing is murder unless it is done to the sound of trumpets”


The harder you try the dumber you look

VOLTAIRE’S WIT AND WISDOM

"Theology amuses me. There we find Man's insanity in all its plenitude”

"Killing is murder unless it is done to the sound of trumpets”

"To stop criticism they say one must die.”


The harder you try the dumber you look

VOLTAIRE’S WIT AND WISDOM

"Theology amuses me. There we find Man's insanity in all its plenitude”

"Killing is murder unless it is done to the sound of trumpets”

"To stop criticism they say one must die.”

"All the reasoning of men is not worth the sentiment of one woman”


The harder you try the dumber you look

VOLTAIRE’S WIT AND WISDOM

"Theology amuses me. There we find Man's insanity in all its plenitude”

"Killing is murder unless it is done to the sound of trumpets”

"To stop criticism they say one must die.”

"All the reasoning of men is not worth the sentiment of one woman”

"It is said God is always on the side of the big battalions.”


The harder you try the dumber you look

VOLTAIRE’S WIT AND WISDOM

"Theology amuses me. There we find Man's insanity in all its plenitude”

"Killing is murder unless it is done to the sound of trumpets”

"To stop criticism they say one must die.”

"All the reasoning of men is not worth the sentiment of one woman”

"It is said God is always on the side of the big battalions.”

"If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him.”


The harder you try the dumber you look

VOLTAIRE’S WIT AND WISDOM

"Theology amuses me. There we find Man's insanity in all its plenitude”

"Killing is murder unless it is done to the sound of trumpets”

"To stop criticism they say one must die.”

"All the reasoning of men is not worth the sentiment of one woman”

"It is said God is always on the side of the big battalions.”

"If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him.”

"Self-love never dies”


The harder you try the dumber you look

VOLTAIRE’S WIT AND WISDOM

"Theology amuses me. There we find Man's insanity in all its plenitude”

"Killing is murder unless it is done to the sound of trumpets”

"To stop criticism they say one must die.”

"All the reasoning of men is not worth the sentiment of one woman”

"It is said God is always on the side of the big battalions.”

"If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him.”

"Self-love never dies”

"Marriage is the only adventure open to the cowardly”


The harder you try the dumber you look

VOLTAIRE’S WIT AND WISDOM

"Theology amuses me. There we find Man's insanity in all its plenitude”

"Killing is murder unless it is done to the sound of trumpets”

"To stop criticism they say one must die.”

"All the reasoning of men is not worth the sentiment of one woman”

"It is said God is always on the side of the big battalions.”

"If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him.”

"Self-love never dies”

"Marriage is the only adventure open to the cowardly”

"In general, the art of government consists in taking as much

money as possible from one class of citizens to give it to the other."


The harder you try the dumber you look

Voltaire’s funeral.


The harder you try the dumber you look

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- Wm Hershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Deism

- Critical Deists vs.church:

Moses wrote ~own death,

- Voltaire: Bastille 2x, left Pr.

- Philos. Dictionary

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Renaissance & growing interest in ancient Greek Philosophy (FC. 76)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Rise of Feudal Monarchies in W. Europe (FC. 68)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)

Kings challenge authority of pope in 1300s (FC. 72)

Scientific revolution discredits Church’s views on the Universe & raises belief in Humanity’s ability to reason (FC. 97)

People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance

Rulers claim Divine Right of Kings & authority over Church

Growing belief among intellectuals in replacing blind faith with faith and reason as the basis for religion

Reason & faith, with reason being dominant

Finally rely on reason alone

DEISM: philosophy popular among intellectuals & based on ancient Greek Epicureanism:

God exists, but is detached from this world like a watch maker who winds up the universe & lets it go

Religious truth can only be found through reason, not divine inspiration or clerical authority

Universal moral laws exist in all cultures around the globe, not just in Christian Europe

Miracles do not exist, only natural phenomena we have not yet found reasons for


The harder you try the dumber you look

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- Wm Hershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Deism

- Critical Deists vs.church:

Moses wrote ~own death,

- Voltaire: Bastille 2x, left Pr.

- Philos. Dictionary

-> 3/4 anti-Chr

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Renaissance & growing interest in ancient Greek Philosophy (FC. 76)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Rise of Feudal Monarchies in W. Europe (FC. 68)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)

Kings challenge authority of pope in 1300s (FC. 72)

Scientific revolution discredits Church’s views on the Universe & raises belief in Humanity’s ability to reason (FC. 97)

People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance

Rulers claim Divine Right of Kings & authority over Church

Growing belief among intellectuals in replacing blind faith with faith and reason as the basis for religion

Reason & faith, with reason being dominant

Finally rely on reason alone

DEISM: philosophy popular among intellectuals & based on ancient Greek Epicureanism:

God exists, but is detached from this world like a watch maker who winds up the universe & lets it go

Religious truth can only be found through reason, not divine inspiration or clerical authority

Universal moral laws exist in all cultures around the globe, not just in Christian Europe

Miracles do not exist, only natural phenomena we have not yet found reasons for


The harder you try the dumber you look

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- Wm Hershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Deism

- Critical Deists vs.church:

Moses wrote ~own death,

- Voltaire: Bastille 2x, left Pr.

- Philos. Dictionary

-> 3/4 anti-Chr

-> Bible collection of

incoherent maxims &

impossible events

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Renaissance & growing interest in ancient Greek Philosophy (FC. 76)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Rise of Feudal Monarchies in W. Europe (FC. 68)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)

Kings challenge authority of pope in 1300s (FC. 72)

Scientific revolution discredits Church’s views on the Universe & raises belief in Humanity’s ability to reason (FC. 97)

People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance

Rulers claim Divine Right of Kings & authority over Church

Growing belief among intellectuals in replacing blind faith with faith and reason as the basis for religion

Reason & faith, with reason being dominant

Finally rely on reason alone

DEISM: philosophy popular among intellectuals & based on ancient Greek Epicureanism:

God exists, but is detached from this world like a watch maker who winds up the universe & lets it go

Religious truth can only be found through reason, not divine inspiration or clerical authority

Universal moral laws exist in all cultures around the globe, not just in Christian Europe

Miracles do not exist, only natural phenomena we have not yet found reasons for


The harder you try the dumber you look

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- Wm Hershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Deism

- Critical Deists vs.church:

Moses wrote ~own death,

- Voltaire: Bastille 2x, left Pr.

- Philos. Dictionary

-> 3/4 anti-Chr

-> Bible collection of

incoherent maxims &

impossible events

- Church fathers ignorant,

power hungry men

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Renaissance & growing interest in ancient Greek Philosophy (FC. 76)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Rise of Feudal Monarchies in W. Europe (FC. 68)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)

Kings challenge authority of pope in 1300s (FC. 72)

Scientific revolution discredits Church’s views on the Universe & raises belief in Humanity’s ability to reason (FC. 97)

People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance

Rulers claim Divine Right of Kings & authority over Church

Growing belief among intellectuals in replacing blind faith with faith and reason as the basis for religion

Reason & faith, with reason being dominant

Finally rely on reason alone

DEISM: philosophy popular among intellectuals & based on ancient Greek Epicureanism:

God exists, but is detached from this world like a watch maker who winds up the universe & lets it go

Religious truth can only be found through reason, not divine inspiration or clerical authority

Universal moral laws exist in all cultures around the globe, not just in Christian Europe

Miracles do not exist, only natural phenomena we have not yet found reasons for


The harder you try the dumber you look

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- Wm Hershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Deism

- Critical Deists vs.church:

Moses wrote ~own death,

- Voltaire: Bastille 2x, left Pr.

- Philos. Dictionary

-> 3/4 anti-Chr

-> Bible collection of

incoherent maxims &

impossible events

- Church fathers ignorant,

power hungry men

- Church history: squabbles

over mere words

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Renaissance & growing interest in ancient Greek Philosophy (FC. 76)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Rise of Feudal Monarchies in W. Europe (FC. 68)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)

Kings challenge authority of pope in 1300s (FC. 72)

Scientific revolution discredits Church’s views on the Universe & raises belief in Humanity’s ability to reason (FC. 97)

People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance

Rulers claim Divine Right of Kings & authority over Church

Growing belief among intellectuals in replacing blind faith with faith and reason as the basis for religion

Reason & faith, with reason being dominant

Finally rely on reason alone

DEISM: philosophy popular among intellectuals & based on ancient Greek Epicureanism:

God exists, but is detached from this world like a watch maker who winds up the universe & lets it go

Religious truth can only be found through reason, not divine inspiration or clerical authority

Universal moral laws exist in all cultures around the globe, not just in Christian Europe

Miracles do not exist, only natural phenomena we have not yet found reasons for


The harder you try the dumber you look

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- Wm Hershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Deism

- Critical Deists vs.church:

Moses wrote ~own death,

- Voltaire: Bastille 2x, left Pr.

- Philos. Dictionary

-> 3/4 anti-Chr

-> Bible collection of

incoherent maxims &

impossible events

- Church fathers ignorant,

power hungry men

- Church history: squabbles

over mere words

- Edward Gibbon: Church

-> fall of Rome

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Renaissance & growing interest in ancient Greek Philosophy (FC. 76)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Rise of Feudal Monarchies in W. Europe (FC. 68)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)

Kings challenge authority of pope in 1300s (FC. 72)

Scientific revolution discredits Church’s views on the Universe & raises belief in Humanity’s ability to reason (FC. 97)

People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance

Rulers claim Divine Right of Kings & authority over Church

Growing belief among intellectuals in replacing blind faith with faith and reason as the basis for religion

Reason & faith, with reason being dominant

Finally rely on reason alone

DEISM: philosophy popular among intellectuals & based on ancient Greek Epicureanism:

God exists, but is detached from this world like a watch maker who winds up the universe & lets it go

Religious truth can only be found through reason, not divine inspiration or clerical authority

Universal moral laws exist in all cultures around the globe, not just in Christian Europe

Miracles do not exist, only natural phenomena we have not yet found reasons for


The harder you try the dumber you look

Science after Newton

- Huygens' pendulum clock (1656)

-> Harrison's chronometer (1761)

- Linnaeus: binary nomenclature

- Georges Buffon:44 vol.

natural hist.

- WmHershcel: disc. Uranus

& Milky Way's vastness

- Roemer's speed of light

from diff's in time of Io's

appearance

- Jenner's innoc. vs.

smallpox (1796)

- Science as a new relig.

- Swift's alternate view of

science

Deism

- Critical Deists vs.church:

Moses wrote ~own death,

- Voltaire: Bastille 2x, left Pr.

- Philos. Dictionary

-> 3/4 anti-Chr

-> Bible collection of

incoherent maxims &

impossible events

- Church fathers ignorant,

power hungry men

- Church history: squabbles

over mere words

- Edward Gibbon: Church

-> fall of Rome

FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT

PHILOSOPHY

Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)

Renaissance & growing interest in ancient Greek Philosophy (FC. 76)

Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84)

Rise of Feudal Monarchies in W. Europe (FC. 68)

Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87)

Kings challenge authority of pope in 1300s (FC. 72)

Scientific revolution discredits Church’s views on the Universe & raises belief in Humanity’s ability to reason (FC. 97)

People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance

Rulers claim Divine Right of Kings & authority over Church

Growing belief among intellectuals in replacing blind faith with faith and reason as the basis for religion

Reason & faith, with reason being dominant

Finally rely on reason alone

DEISM: philosophy popular among intellectuals & based on ancient Greek Epicureanism:

God exists, but is detached from this world like a watch maker who winds up the universe & lets it go

Religious truth can only be found through reason, not divine inspiration or clerical authority

Universal moral laws exist in all cultures around the globe, not just in Christian Europe

Miracles do not exist, only natural phenomena we have not yet found reasons for

Downplayed role of God in this world Humans have responsibility & power to solve their own social & economic problems (FC. 100)


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