Cardinal Surveys Company. Eliminate The Guesswork!. Bringing conformance within reach with proven technology. Cardinal Surveys Company. Choose your treatment success rate: 0 - 5% Based on assumptions. 5 - 90% Based on partial data.
Eliminate The Guesswork!
Bringing conformance within reach with proven technology.
Choose your treatment success rate:
0 - 5% Based on assumptions.
5 - 90% Based on partial data.
+90% Based on defined problems with solutions proven on previous applications.
We know, it has to be this!
It’s the only thing that could cause that…
The model shows…
Damage productive zones.
Water Analysis - you know the zone, what’s the flow path?
Production History / Correlation - Flow path, parts is parts?
Bond Logs - Good until the first stimulation.
Injector Response - flow path, vertical fractures, offset wells...
Pump In Tracers without Production Logs - Path of least resistance, usually the good productive zone.
Don’t take the blame, we will!
Impress Your Boss
TRAC-III to determine conformance problem.
A. Annulus Logging with 7/8” O.D. Tools.
B. Flowing Wells
C. “Y” Tool & Submersible Pump (7/8” Tools).
D. Memory PLT (Horizontal Applications).
4.5” Casing & 2.375” Tubing
5.5” Casing & 2.875” Tubing
Or any combination of larger casing and smaller tubing.
No liners or other restrictions in the annulus.
ROT: 100 BPD of produced fluids.
Rope Socket (15" - 5/8" fishing neck)
Capacitance Tool (40")
Collar Locator (28.5")
Scintillation Gamma Ray Detector (60")
Microprocessor Controlled Ejector (75.5")
Temperature Tool (37")
Memory Pressure Gauge (14”)
Total Tool Length with crossovers = 30’
Pump Is Engaged
Note that there is not enough room to install a valve on the annulus opening.
These flanges are specifically designed for logging in 4.5” casing. A dual completion flange, if there is such, would not allow enough room in the annulus for tool entry.
Prevents fluids from being circulated by pump.
Used to retrieve plug from Y-tool.
There are no silver bullets in the production logging industry.
Production logging for conformance objectives is an investigative process.
It requires the knowledge, experience, and authority to change the logging procedure as needed to define anomalies as they are encountered during the log.
Avoid the intentional design of tests that rely completely on nuclear based data acquisition. Their maximum radius of investigation is approximately 24 inches from the sensor.
In production logging, temperature logs are the center of your universe.
They are always correct, although sometimes hard to interpret by themselves.
Use data acquired from others sensors to help you interpret the temperature logs.
Logs used to align logging depths to previously run open hole and cased hole logs.
Avoid the LAST LOG SYNDROME. It is generally acceptable for most production logs to be within 2 to 3 feet of measured depth. However, if you are on the 4th or 5th generation of logs, you may be correlating 10’ to 15’ off depth. Always try to use the original open hole logs or the logs used to perforate the well.
Producing temperature logs tend to reflect in wellbore and near wellbore events.
Shut-in temperature logs indicate events outside the wellbore.
You must know the status of the interior of the wellbore before you can interpret shut-in temperatures.
Modified Velocity Profile Measurement
Production fluctuations do not affect the calculations as severely as stationary velocity shots.
Same velocity method is used in flowing wells.
Leak in CSG 400’ above top perf producing +300 bpd water. Leak is at a collar and will give up water, but not take water.
Pump removing +/- 200 bpd water to surface.
The new zone dead. It is not giving up or taking fluid.
Productive zone is taking 100 bpd water, crossflow from leaking casing.
Which zone do you believe would have been squeezed had we followed the original request?
What if water was channeling up from below and into the bottom set of perfs?
What if water was being produced from the new zone? What would be the likely series of events?
End Result: LOST WELL
Pump-In Tracer or Injection Profile.
A. Stationary Velocity Profile.
B. Intensity Profile
C. Channel Checks
D. Crossflow Checks
A slug of radioactive I-131 is
released from the ejector and
the travel time is recorded till
arrival at the detector.
The volume of the cylinder
and the time of travel is used
to calculate a Barrel Per Day
In standard 5 1/2” Casing:
One large slug of I-131 is ejected
above the zone of interest. Multiple
gamma ray passes are made up
through the slug as it travels down
Losses of radioactive material from
the slug represent the amount of
injection lost in those same areas.
Injection occurring inside, or outside the wellbore
Cross Flow Checks occurring inside, or outside the wellbore
Slugs of I-131 are ejected above,
between, and below the zones.
Multiple runs are pulled though all
the slugs to determine if the is fluid
is migrating between zones in the
You must know the state of the well
to interpret shut-in temperatures.
Caliper Log occurring inside, or outside the wellbore
No Flow Shot
Example #2 occurring inside, or outside the wellbore
Customer has flowing gas well in West Texas
Well has been acidized and fraced
Current Production Rate: 10 oil, 600 water, & 6MMcf gas
Test Objective: Reduce water without losing gas production
Production Log Indicates:
Water entry at bottom perfs with channel from below and a minor oil entry
Additional oil entry at mid-perfs.
Major gas entry at top perfs.
Example #2 - Recommendation occurring inside, or outside the wellbore
Isolate bottom perfs for mult-rate injection profile test.
Set PKR just below mid-perfs to allow maximum room to monitor any injected fluids channeling up hole toward gas zone.
Establish an envelope of rates and pressures that will keep treatment chemicals in desired intervals.
Rates established in the envelope will allow calculations for the selection of treatment chemicals, catalyst, and other factors needed to place and set a successful treatment.
Results occurring inside, or outside the wellbore
A. .25 bpm
B. .50 bpm
C. .75 bpm
D. 1.0 bpm
Rate must remain below .5 bpm to keep treatment in target zone.
? What If ? occurring inside, or outside the wellbore
Mechanical-Hydro Isolation occurring inside, or outside the wellbore
Same well and mechanical configuration
Inject water down tubing and tubing annulus simultaneously
Vary rates and pressures to establish an acceptable envelope
How much, if any, water can be injected into primary pay without causing irreversible damage?
Hydro Isolation - Interface Logging occurring inside, or outside the wellbore
Well Configuration occurring inside, or outside the wellbore
Run blank tubing to just above PBTD
Rig up pump trucks to casing and tubing
Rig up Cardinal Tagmaster to inject I-131 into casing line
Interface Logging occurring inside, or outside the wellbore
Production logging can be used to screen wells for conformance treatments by identifying wells with potential for success or ultimate failure.
Production logging gives accurate data that can be used to formulate, monitor, and keep conformance treatments in the intended interval.
Conformance treatments can be greatly enhanced with the use of proper production logging techniques and equipment
DON’T GUESS…… KNOW!