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1. Supervision in Occupational Therapy Tanya Pugh
Supervisor and Supervisee
2. Sweeny et al 2001 p 427 explain there is confusion in occupational therapy concerning clinical supervision that is based from :-
..the lack of training in supervision, a lack of exposure to theoretical models of supervision, an absence of adequate role models and a lack of awareness of effective supervisory strategies
3. Why ask the question? Is there a difference between supervision styles in different professions?
Are we confused about the type of supervision we practice?
What is the COT position concerning supervision?
What is clinical supervision?
Can Occupational Therapists practice clinical supervision
Proposed a framework to assist therapists in choosing a model of supervision
4. Assumptions Supervision is valuable vital
Continuous professional development
Imbedded in our profession - Ethics and Professional Conduct (2005), states all therapists will participate in supervision.
5.4.4. Occupational Therapy personnel shall be supported in their practice and development through a regular professional supervision within an agreed structure or model Pg 16
5. COT as made a number of statements:-
A professional relationship which ensures good standards and encourages professional development 1990
Supervision is not the equivalent of performance review and responsibility for work carried out 1997
6. COT continued Defined professional and clinical (day-to-day) supervision
is concerned purely with occupational therapy, professional specific matters
It may incorporate professional development, particular skills or knowledge, or quality and standards of practice, when these are explicit to occupational therapy
is related to an individuals practice, and be dependent upon the role they hold.
7. COT continued Three main functions:
Is this tripartite function recommended by the COT clinical supervision?
9. What is Clinical supervision? Butterworth (1995)
Clinical supervision is an exchange between practising professionals to enable development of professional skills.
Bond & Holland (2001 p12)
Clinical supervision is the regular, protected time for facilitation, in-depth reflection on clinical practice...The process of clinical supervision should be continued throughout the persons career, whether they remain in clinical practice or move into management, research or education.
10. What is Clinical supervision?
Bullman & Schutz (2004 p 85)
The expectation of clinical supervision is a practitioner would develop a different perspective on his or her work and identify alternative approaches to practice.
Howaston-Jones (2004 p 38)
Clinical supervision is a designated reflective exchange between two or more professionals in a safe and supportive environment which critically analyses practice through normative, formative and restorative means to promote and enhance the quality of care.
11. There is no one clear definition of clinical supervision
There are different perspectives
There are different functions
This may explain the present confusion concerning range of interconnected types of supervision
12. The features and underpinning philosophy of clinical supervision Each individual has the right to choose their supervisor
Clinical supervision should never be forced upon an individual and there should be mutual consent
All parties hold equal status
The process should be person centred and not organisational or corporate objected
There should be a set of ground rules mutually agreed
13. The features and underpinning philosophy of clinical supervision All parties have a right to express their feelings, opinions and anxieties without fear of ridicule
Should be centred around the individual
Clinical supervision should be confidential with the ground rules
Notes should be available to both parties and should remain confidential
So can Occupational Therapists Practice Clinical Supervision?
16. Challenges The term clinical supervision should not be used to describe sessions that have function described by COT
Supervision / clinical supervision mean different things to different professions
The title of clinical supervision should be replaced by personal development sessions
17. references Bond, M. & Holland, S. (2001) Skills of clinical supervision for nurses. Open university press.
Clouder, L. (2000) reflective practice: realising the potential Physiotherapy Vol 86(10) p 517-521
College of Occupational Therapists (2003). Professional Standards for Occupational Therapy Practice. The College of Occupational Therapists: London
College of Occupational Therapists (2005). Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct. The College of Occupational Therapists: London
Commission for Health (2004) National Staff Survey HMSO
Driscoll, J. (2000) Practising clinical supervision. A reflective approach. Bailliere Tindall
Driscoll, J. and Teh, B. (2001) The potential of reflective practice to develop individual orthopaedic nurse practitioners and their practice. Journal of orthopaedic nursing Vol 5 p 93-103
Holloway, E. (1987) Developmental models of supervision: is it development? Professional psychology: research and practice. Vol 1893) p 209-216
Hopkins, H and Smith, H (1994) Willard and Spackmans Occupational Therapy. Lippincott Company London
Howaston-Jones, I. (2003) Difficulties in clinical supervision and long life learning. Nursing standard Vol 17913) p 37-41
Jasper, M. (2003) Beginning reflective practice foundations in nursing and health care. Nelson Thornes Ltd
18. references Johns, C. (2004) 2nd Edition Becoming a reflective practitioner. Blackwell Publishing
Johns, C. & Freshwater, D. (2005) Transforming nursing through reflective practice. Blackwell Publishing
Ooijen, E. (2003) Clinical supervision made easy. Churchill Livingstone
RCN Institute (2000) Realising clinical effectiveness and clinical governance through clinical supervision. Radcliffe Medical press
Roberts, A (2002) Advancing practice through continuing professional education: the case for reflection. . British journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 65(5) p237-240
Smith, G. (2000) Friendship within clinical supervision: A model for the NHS. [on line] http://www.clinical-supervision.com/Geo%20cardiff%20presentation%20notes.htm (accessed on 8th March 2006)
Spouse, J. & Redfern, L. (2000) Successful supervision in Health care practice. Blackwell science
Sweeny, G. Webley, P. & Treacher, A. (2001a) Supervision in Occupational Therapy, part 1: the supervisors anxieties. British journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 64(7) p 337-345
Sweeny, G. Webley, P. & Treacher, A. (2001b) Supervision in Occupational Therapy, part 2: the supervisees dilemma. British journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 64(8) p 380-386
Sweeny, G. Webley, P. & Treacher, A. (2001c) Supervision in Occupational Therapy, part 3: Accommodating the supervisor and supervisee. British journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 64(9) p 426-431
Unsworth, C. (2004) Clinical reasoning: how do pragmatic reasoning, worldview and client-centredness fit? British journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 67(1) p 10-19