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DRAWING In the Elementary School Leanne Ross. DRAWING. Teaching Drawing S kills in the Elementary C lassroom. Children and Drawing Skills. Early developmental stage compels them to draw Age 6 or 7 become self-critical Avoid discouragement at this stage. So Why Bother With Drawing?.

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DRAWING In the Elementary School

Leanne Ross


Drawing

DRAWING

Teaching Drawing Skills in the Elementary Classroom


Children and drawing skills
Children and Drawing Skills

  • Early developmental stage compels them to draw

  • Age 6 or 7 become self-critical

  • Avoid discouragement at this stage


So why bother with drawing
So Why Bother With Drawing?

  • Related to brain maturation

  • It “wires-up” the visual and motor cortex

  • Improves math understanding

  • Expands language skills

  • Creates confident artistic sensibilities

  • Builds stronger and better fine motor skills. Eric Jensen

    "A man paints with his brains

    and not with his hands."

    Michelangelo


What is drawing

What Is Drawing

A Drawing -

Two-dimensional visual art

Marks on a surface

Makes use of many different media

Expresses the artists ideas

A Sketch –

Rapidly executed freehand drawing

A quick way to record an idea for later use

Sharpens an artist's ability to focus on the most important elements of a subject


Getting started
GETTING STARTED

  • A regular learning activity

  • A tool in other subject areas

  • Curriculum that builds on drawing skills through all grades

  • Teacher self study and growth are important

  • Implement the elements and principles of design in art lessons


The elements of design the principles that govern them
THE ELEMENTSof design & THE PRINCIPLES that govern them

  • Elements

    • Line

    • Shape

    • Value

    • Form

    • Texture

    • Color

  • Principles

    • Unity

    • Rhythm

    • Balance

    • Proportion

    • Perspective


Elements line
ELEMENTS: Line

  • Description:

    • Used to define shape, contours, and outlines, also to suggest mass, volume, and movement

    • It may be a continuous mark made on a surface with a pointed tool or implied by the edges of shapes and forms


Line

  • Types of Line:

    • Outlines- Lines made by the edge of an object or its silhouette

    • Contour Lines- Lines that describe the shape of an object and the interior detail

    • Gesture Lines- Line that are energetic and catches the movement and gestures of an active figure

    • Sketch Lines- Lines that captures the appearance of an object or impression of a place


Lines continued
Lines continued. . .

Implied Line-

  • Not actually drawn but created by a group of objects seen from a distance

  • The direction an object is pointing, or the direction toward which a person is looking


Line

  • Characteristics of Line

    • Width- thick, thin, tapering, uneven

    • Length - long, short, continuous, broken

    • Direction- horizontal, vertical, diagonal, curving, perpendicular, oblique, parallel, radial, zigzag

    • Focus- sharp, blurry, fuzzy, choppy

    • Feeling- sharp, jagged, graceful, smooth


Teaching line
Teaching LINE

  • Explore

    • Characteristics

    • Types

  • Experiment

    • With types and characteristics of line

    • With different types of materials

      • Pencils

      • Charcoal (for middle to upper grades)

      • Ink (for older students - black fine point marker)

      • Different types of paper


Shape
Shape

  • When a line crosses itself or intersects with other lines to enclose a space it creates a shape. 

  • Is two-dimensional; it has height and width but no depth.


Shape1
Shape:

  • Categories of shape

    • Geometric Shapes- We see them in architecture and manufactured items(circles, squares, rectangles and triangles)

    • Organic Shapes- Natural shapes with characteristics that are free flowing, informal and irregular (leaf, seashells, flowers)


Shape continued
Shape continued

  • Positive Shapes-Solid forms in a design such as a bowl of fruit 

  • Negative Shapes-The space around the positive shape or the shape around the bowl of fruit

  • Static Shape-Shapes that appear stable and resting

  • Dynamic Shape-Shapes that appear moving and active


Teaching shape
Teaching Shape

  • Practice geometric and organic shapes

  • Explore positive and negative space around shapes

  • Create a piece of art using one or both categories

  • Evaluation – for any artwork can be done by:

    • Self

    • Peer

    • Teacher


Value
VALUE

  • The range of lightness and darkness within a picture

  • Is used in art when a light source shines on an object creating a three dimensional look with highlights and shadows

  • Creates depth within a picture (using a dark value to create a hole in the ground)

  • Landscape gets lighter in value as it recedes to the background giving the illusion of atmospheric depth


Value1
VALUE

  • Categories of Value

    • Tint: adding white

    • Shade: adding black

    • High-Key - all light values

    • Low-Key - all dark values


Value2
VALUE

  • Value Contrast - light values placed next to dark values to develope contrast or strong differences

  • Value Scale - shows the gradual change in value from its darkest value (black) to its

    lightest value (white)


Teaching value
Teaching Value

  • Start with practice of light to dark

  • Try shading a cone or sphere

  • Talk about light source

  • After practice apply to a project

  • Always view “value pieces” from a distance

  • Another evaluation technique is a class discussion


FORM

  • The three-dimensionality of an object

  • Created by making shape three-dimensional

    • -Shading a circle (shape)

    • -Using gradients of black or a hue can turn it into a sphere (form)

  • Practicing value gradients

  • can help to visualize how to

  • imply form


Texture
TEXTURE

  • The surface quality of an object

  • or

  • Refers to the way a picture is made to look rough or smooth


Texture1
TEXTURE

  • Categories of Texture

    • Real Texture is the

      actual texture of an object

    • Implied Texture is a two-dimensional piece of art which is made to look like a certain texture but

      in fact is just a

      smooth piece

      of paper


Teaching texture
Teaching Texture

  • Experience the “feel” of real textures

  • Use textured materials in making art

  • Create implied texture patterns

  • Make a texture “quilt” of individual squares

  • Allow partner discussion while working

  • Evaluate by having a “quilt vote” (who has created the most pleasing quilt)


Color
COLOR

  • Color comes from light.

  • Light rays move in a straight path from a light source. 

  • Within light are the rays of all colors in the spectrum or rainbow. 

  • Example: a red ball reflects all the red light rays, the other colors

    are absorbed.


Color and light
Color and Light

  • The Sun gives off "white" light; a mixture of all the colors in the spectrum.

  • The object appears BLUE because RED and GREEN are absorbed, while only the BLUE light is reflected.

  • We see the color BLUE.


Color continued
Color (continued)

Shining a light into a prism will create a rainbow of colors because it separates the color of the spectrum. 

When the light rays hit an object our eyes respond to the light that is bounced back and we see that color. 


Artists and color
Artists and Color

As artists we use pigments in the form of powder or liquid paints to create color.


Color1
COLOR

  • Color Wheel is a tool used to organize color. 


Primary colors
Primary Colors

The Color Wheel is made up of:

Primary Colors-

Red, Yellow, Blue

These colors cannot

be mixed.


Secondary colors
Secondary Colors

Secondary Color: Orange, Violet, Green

These colors are created by mixing two primaries.


Intermediate tertiary colors
Intermediate (Tertiary) Colors

Intermediate Colors:

Red Orange, Red Purple, Blue Purple, Blue Green, Yellow Green, Yellow Orange

Mixing a primary with

a secondary

creates these colors. 


Complementary colors
Complementary Colors

  • Opposite each other on the color wheel

  • Next to each other they look bright

  • Mixed together they neutralize each other


Color harmonies
Color Harmonies

  • Color Harmonies:

    • combinations of colors that create different looks or feelings

  • Triadic Harmony:

    • three equally spaced colors on the color wheel are used - Yellow, Red, Blue


Analogous monochromatic
Analogous & Monochromatic

  • Analogous Colors are colors that are next to each other on the color wheel for example red, red orange, and orange are analogous colors.

  • Monochromatic is where one color is used but in different values and intensity.


Warm cool colors
Warm & Cool Colors

  • Warm colors are on one side of the color wheel:

    • red, orange and yellow

  • Cool colors are on the other side of the color wheel:

    • blue, violet, and green


Teaching color
Teaching Color

  • For drawing only minimal color study is necessary

  • Use color to enhance study of value and texture

  • Explore media for color drawing:

    • Colored pencils

    • Cray paws

    • Conte’ crayon

    • Crayons

    • Colored markers

  • Use teacher and peer evaluation of color use


Principles of drawing unity
Principles of Drawing: Unity

  • Describes the relationship between the individual parts and the whole

  • Relates the design elements to the idea being expressed

  • Also refers to the visual linking of various elements of the work

  • Harmony and composition fit within the study of unity


Rhythm
Rhythm

  • Rhythm

    Is a movement in which some elements recur regularly

  • Can suggest pattern

  • Can create texture

  • Pattern is part of Rhythm study


Balance
Balance

  • A feeling of visual equality in shape, form, value, color

  • Can be symmetrical (evenly balanced) or asymmetrical(un-evenly balanced)

  • Objects, values, colors, textures, shapes, forms, etc., can be used as elemnts in creating balance in a composition


Proportion
Proportion

  • The comparison of dimensions or distribution of forms

  • Relationship in scale between one element and another

  • Can help establish visual weight and depth

Notice how the smaller elements seem to recede into the background while the larger elements come to the front.


Perspective
Perspective

  • The use of dominant directional lines, directing the viewers eye

  • The illusion of depth in a two-dimensional design

  • Linear and atmospheric perspective


..\The Artist's Toolkit Explore ArtsConnectEd.mht

All picture and information sources used in this power point are listed in the “add notes” drop down box on each slide.


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