CARBON CYCLING IN TREE PLANTATIONS
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CARBON CYCLING IN TREE PLANTATIONS OF TEMPERATE AND SUBTROPICAL SOUTH AMERICA. Grupo de Estudios Ambientales – IMASL, CONICET & Universidad Nacional de San Luis – ARGENTINA IFEVA, CONICET & Facultad de Agronomía Universidad de Buenos Aires - ARGENTINA

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CARBON CYCLING IN TREE PLANTATIONS OF TEMPERATE AND SUBTROPICAL SOUTH AMERICA .

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Carbon cycling in tree plantations of temperate and subtropical south america

CARBON CYCLING IN TREE PLANTATIONS

OF TEMPERATE AND SUBTROPICAL SOUTH AMERICA

.

Grupo de Estudios Ambientales – IMASL, CONICET & Universidad Nacional de San Luis – ARGENTINA

IFEVA, CONICET & Facultad de Agronomía

Universidad de Buenos Aires - ARGENTINA

Department of Biology & Nicholas School of the Environment – Duke University – U.S.A

E.G. Jobbágy

G. Piñeiro

R.B. Jackson

S.T. Berthrong

P. Eclesia

M.D. Nosetto


Carbon cycling in tree plantations of temperate and subtropical south america

Tree plantations in South America

Fast growing species for commercial purposes

eucalypts, pines, poplar-willows

First wave in the 70s, second wave in the 90s

declining native resources

substitution of imports

public subsidies

globalization of markets

Ecological & economic opportunity

very high productivity (high yield / short shifts) suitable land with low opportunity cost

afforestation

foci

in the subtropical & temperate zone

grasslands emerge as THE key “forestry” biome (!)

EXAMPLE: Output of forest products in Argentina (statistics for 2002)

native forests →~1 M Tn y-1 on 34 M Ha

planted forests on grasslands →~1 M Tn y-1 on 0.5 M Ha


Carbon cycling in tree plantations of temperate and subtropical south america

C uptake (NPP)

Harvest

Fire

Herbivory

biomass

Fire

Erosion

Herbivory / Decomposition

forest floor

Decomposition

soil organic

matter


Carbon cycling in tree plantations of temperate and subtropical south america

C uptake (NPP)

biomass

forest floor

soil organic

matter


Carbon cycling in tree plantations of temperate and subtropical south america

Net primary production TREE PLANTATION vs. PREVIOUS COVER

as suggested by NDVI from AVHRR-NOAA

Media histórica 1982-1999

LONG TERM AVERAGE 1982-1999

AR

BR

BR

CH

BR

CH

CH

AR

Independent field data suggests a 2-3 fold increase of aboveground NPP

NPP rates are by far the highest of any other cultivated land use

AR-UR

BR

BR

NDVI tree plantation

BR

VZ

EC

NDVI adjacent zones (control)

Baldi et al. 2008. Ambiencia (Brasil)

Nosetto et al. 2008. Global Biogeochemical Cycles

Jobbágy et al. Agrociencia 2006

Subtrop humid forest

dry forest

temp humid forest

temp grassland

trop grassland


Carbon cycling in tree plantations of temperate and subtropical south america

C uptake (NPP)

Gains under commercial, high density, fastest growing species schemes:

5-15 Tn/Ha/yr in humid zones

1-3 Tn/Ha/yr in semiarid zones

Shorter shifts than in the Northern Hemisphere: 10-20 yrs in warm/humid zone

Still under expanding face

(planted area > harvested area)

Net gains under steady state conditions??

biomass

forest floor

soil organic

matter

Jobbagy & Jackson 2003 – Biogeochemistry

Laclau 2003 – Forest Ecology & Management

Nosetto et al. 2006 – Journal of Arid Environments

Piñeiro et al – unpublished data


Carbon cycling in tree plantations of temperate and subtropical south america

C uptake (NPP)

biomass

forest floor

soil organic

matter


Carbon cycling in tree plantations of temperate and subtropical south america

Berthrong et al. in preparation

SOC differences in paired stands

native grassland vs. eucalypt plantation

ppt gradient (Argentina-Uruguay)

(-)

soil organic

matter

(=)

100%

50%

Isotopic (13C) evidence points to lower inputs to SOC

compared to grasslands

(a) higher aerial vs. belowground inputs causing lower

humification rates

seem more important than

(b) lower biomass quality (just small) or

(c) higher SOC decomposition rates (not seen at all)

20%

same

-20%

-40%


Carbon cycling in tree plantations of temperate and subtropical south america

SOM - Kg C / m3

SOM - Kg C / m3

0

20

40

60

0

20

40

60

80

0

0

20

20

40

40

CASTELLI (50 years)

GUERRERO (97 years)

depth (cm)

60

60

grassland

plantation

80

80

differences p<0.05

100

100

∂13C ‰

∂13C ‰

-16

-20

-24

-28

-32

-16

-20

-24

-28

0

0

depth (cm)

(new C)

(new C)

100

100


Carbon cycling in tree plantations of temperate and subtropical south america

biomass

(+)

(?, but possibly ++)

forest floor

(-)

soil organic

matter


Carbon cycling in tree plantations of temperate and subtropical south america

trade-off 1: water

C uptake (NPP)

biomass

Declining water yields in small watersheds of increasing relative importance towards drier climates

High groundwater consumption and localized salinization in flat sedimentary regions (Pampas)

below ~1200 mm/yr of precipitation

Jobbágy & Jackson 2004 Global Change Biology

Jackson et al. 2005 – Science

Farley et al. 2006 – Global Change Biology

Nosetto et al. 2008 – Global Biogeochemical Cycles


Carbon cycling in tree plantations of temperate and subtropical south america

8

1:1 line

7

pH tree plantation

mean

pH drop

6

5

4

4

5

6

7

8

pH grassland

trade-off 2: calcium redistribution

biomass

forest floor

soil organic

matter

Review of paired soil studies (plantation vs. grassland)

High Ca demand, sequestration, and export

leads to soil acidification.

eucalypts >> pines

wet & sandy/weathered contexts: stream acidification

Jobbágy & Jackson 2003 – Biogoechemistry

Jobbágy & Jackson - Ecology

Berthrong et al. 2008 – Ecological Applications

Farley et al. 2008 – Water Resources Research

Piñeiro et al. unpublished data


Carbon cycling in tree plantations of temperate and subtropical south america

Guess where

our best

C stock is


Carbon cycling in tree plantations of temperate and subtropical south america

Para 12C

dS/dt = I – k S(t)

En nuestro caso,

para tiempo = 0 (establecimiento)

y para tiempo = X (edad al muestreo)

conocemos S y S*

Además conocemos rI (I*/I)

Queremos averiguar I y k,

y así proyectar S en otras tiempo/condiciones

rI

=

rS

Para 13C

dS*/dt = I* – k S*(t)

Solución 100% analítica, exacta, sin parámetros ajustables


Carbon cycling in tree plantations of temperate and subtropical south america

  • Tiempo de renovación

  • mas rápido en superficie

  • Valores similares en ambos sitios

  • Descenso de I en profundidad

  • (en Guerrero 480, 219, 103, 42, 25 y 16 g/m3 por estrato)

  • I es menor en Guerrero

  • (monte de baja densidad sujeto a cosecha…)

  • Muy bajos Ingresos respecto

  • a los valores conocidos de producción

  • En 0-20, I = 450-900 Kg C/Ha/año

  • Productividad primaria neta aérea de aprox 5000 Kg C/Ha/año

  • Biomasa raíces (<0.5 cm diámetro) 4500 Kg. C/Ha/año

Aplicación del modelo


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