Immune response to hiv infection
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Immune Response to HIV Infection. June 28, 2001 Ms. Jane Coyle-Morris Wyeth-Ayerst Research. Immune Response to HIV Infection. Immunology HIV Biology Immune Response to HIV Infection. Role of Antibodies. Antibody interaction with Complement Proteins. Cytotoxic T-Cells.

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Immune Response to HIV Infection

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Immune Response to HIV Infection

June 28, 2001

Ms. Jane Coyle-Morris

Wyeth-Ayerst Research


Immune Response to HIV Infection

  • Immunology

  • HIV Biology

  • Immune Response to HIV Infection


Role of Antibodies


Antibody interaction with Complement Proteins


Cytotoxic T-Cells


Central Role of Helper T-Cells


Macrophage

Large, irregularly-shaped phagocytic cells that act as the body’s scavengers. Macrophages engulf and consume foreign material such as bacteria and viruses.


T Cells

Arise from stem cells in the bone marrow then migrate to the thymus gland where they develop the ability to recognize foreign antigens in a specific manner.


Helper T Cells (TH)

Detect infection and initiate both humoral and cell-mediated responses (CD4 cells)


Cytotoxic T Cells (TC)

Recruited by TH to lyse infected body cells (CD8 cells)


Cell Marker Proteins

  • CD4: cell marker found on the surface of TH and macrophages; acts as a receptor for HIV

  • CD8: cell marker found on the surface of TC


B Cells and Plasma Cells

  • B Cells: precursors of plasma cells, specialized to recognize particular foreign antigens

  • Plasma Cells: derived from B cells, they produce antibodies to specific antigens marking them for destruction


Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)

  • Proteins markers found on the surface of the body’s cells to signal “self” from “non-self”. MHC-I can be found on every cell in the body while MHC-II is found only on B cells, T cells and macrophages.


Cytokines

  • Soluble proteins secreted by the cells of the immune system to signal activation and proliferation of the appropriate components of the immune response. IL-1 is released from macrophages and signals activation of T cells. Activated T cells produce IL-2 which signals proliferation of T cell clones and also helps B cells to start secreting antibodies.


Cytokines


The Immune Response


Central Role of CD4 T Cell


HIV Biology


HIV in Action


Natural Course of HIV Infection


Overview


Immune Response to HIV Infection

  • Immunology: humoral vs. cell-mediated

  • HIV biology: complex series of events leading to viral entry and course of infection; evasion of immune system

  • Immune response to HIV: weak humoral response, strong cell-mediated response diminished over time by depletion of helper T-cells


AIDS/HIV Internet Sites

  • Www.ama-assn.org/special/hiv/hivhome.htm

  • www.planetq.com/aidsvl/index.html

  • www.thebody.com/cgi-bin/body.cgi

  • www.cdc.gov/

  • www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/aids/

  • www.roche-hiv.com/default.htm


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