B information technology is cisb434 decision support systems
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B. Information Technology (IS) CISB434: Decision Support Systems. Chapter 9: System Development & Acquisition. Learning Objectives. Describe the basic concepts of systems development Discuss the major steps in developing decision support system (DSS) management support system (MSS).

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B information technology is cisb434 decision support systems

B. Information Technology (IS)CISB434: Decision Support Systems

Chapter 9:

System Development & Acquisition


Learning objectives

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the basic concepts of systems development

    • Discuss the major steps in developing

      • decision support system (DSS)

      • management support system (MSS)


Learning objectives1

Learning Objectives

  • List the major MSS application develop-ment options

    • along with the benefits and limitations

    • describe the four phases of the system development life cycle:

      • planning

      • analysis

      • development

      • implementation


Learning objectives2

Learning Objectives

  • Discuss various MSS application out-sourcing options

    • including the use of an application service provider (ASP)

    • utility computing


Learning objectives3

Learning Objectives

  • Describe prototyping methodology

    • explain why MSSs are typically developed using these methods

    • describe the factors that lead to success or failure

    • discuss the learning process that occurs during development

    • discuss the concept of end-user computing


Learning objectives4

Learning Objectives

  • Give some major MSS software pack-ages and MSS application suites

    • examine the criteria for selection

  • Describe various methods for connect-ing an MSS application to back-end systems and databases

    • discuss the value and technical foundation of Web Services in integrated applications


Learning objectives5

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the criteria used in selecting an outsourcing vendor and package


System development acquisition

System Development & Acquisition

Basic Concepts of Systems Development


Mss development introduction

MSS DevelopmentIntroduction

  • Types of Support Systems

    • Infrastructure

      • Data Warehouses and Business Intelligence

      • Knowledge Management Systems

      • Enterprise Information Systems

      • Portals


Mss development introduction1

MSS DevelopmentIntroduction

  • Types of Support Systems

    • Specific applications

    • Tools and tool kits

    • Platforms


Mss development the landscape framework

MSS DevelopmentThe Landscape & Framework


Mss development the landscape framework1

MSS DevelopmentThe Landscape & Framework

  • Step 1:

    • Planning, identifying, and justifying MSS

  • Step 2:

    • Creating an MSS architecture

    • MSS architecture

      • A plan for organizing the underlying infrastruc-ture and applications of the MSS project


Mss development the landscape framework2

MSS DevelopmentThe Landscape & Framework

  • Step 3:

    • Selecting a development option

      • Build the system in house

      • Have a vendor build a custom-made system

      • Buy an existing application and install it, with or without modifications, by yourself or through a vendor


Mss development the landscape framework3

MSS DevelopmentThe Landscape & Framework

  • Step 3:

    • Selecting a development option

      • Lease standard software from an ASP, utility computing, or set up a software-as-a-service arrangement

      • Enter into a partnership or an alliance that will enable the company to use someone else's application

      • Use a combination of these approaches


Mss development the landscape framework4

MSS DevelopmentThe Landscape & Framework

  • Step 4:

    • Installing, testing, connecting, and deploy-ing MSS applications

  • Step 5:

    • Operations, maintenance, and updating


Mss development the landscape framework5

MSS DevelopmentThe Landscape & Framework

  • Managing the development process

    • The development process can be fairly complex and must be managed properly

    • For medium to large applications, a project team is usually created to manage the process and the vendors

      • Project management software


System development acquisition1

System Development & Acquisition

Development Options


Mss development development options

MSS DevelopmentDevelopment Options

  • In-house development (in-sourcing)

  • Outsourcing

    • Buy from off the shelf

    • Lease from vendor


Mss development development options1

MSS DevelopmentDevelopment Options

  • In-house development - Insourcing

    • Development options for in-house development

      • Building from scratch

      • Building from components

      • Integrating applications

    • Need to have the expertise/ skills in house

    • Good for specialized application


Mss development in house development methods used

MSS Developmentin-house development-Methods used

  • Methods used in in-house development

    • System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)  

      • A systematic process for the effective construc-tion of large information systems


Mss development in house development methods used1

MSS Developmentin-house development-Methods used


Mss development in house development methods used2

MSS Developmentin-house development-Methods used

  • Rapid application development (RAD)  

    • A development methodology that adjusts a system development life-cycle

    • so that parts of the system can be develo-ped quickly

    • enabling users to obtain some functionality as soon as possible

      • Includes methods of phased development

      • e.g. prototyping, and throwaway prototyping


Mss development in house development methods used3

MSS Developmentin-house development-Methods used

  • Prototyping

    • A strategy in which a scaled-down system or portion of a system

    • is constructed in a short time, tested, and improved

    • in several iterations


Mss development development options2

MSS DevelopmentDevelopment Options

  • Buying applications - cost, maintenance/support provided…

  • Leasing applications

    • Lease from an outsourcer and then install it on the company’s premises

    • Lease from an ASP that hosts the application at its data center


Mss development development options3

MSS DevelopmentDevelopment Options

  • Methods used in in-house development

    • Software-as-a-service (SaaS)

      • Software that is rented instead of sold


Mss development development options4

MSS DevelopmentDevelopment Options

  • Factors driving the switch to software-as-a-service:

    • Reducing the risks involved in acquiring new software

    • Influencing product and service quality via an ongoing relationship with vendors


Mss development development options5

MSS DevelopmentDevelopment Options

  • Factors driving the switch to software-as-a-service:

    • Changing usage commitments as business circumstances change

    • Preparing financially justifiable business cases

    • More accurately predicting ongoing expen-ses


Development options

Development Options

  • If custom software is required, the alternatives of insourcing and outsourcing should be compared.

    • A key consideration is the availability of in-house resources.


Development options1

Development Options

  • If do not have the resources to build in-house, need to consider buy off the shelf (package) or lease from vendor:

    • if the application is sufficiently popular that packages and/or ASPs exist for it

    • their total cost of ownership (TOC) should be compared for the firm’s planning horizon.

    • The cost of using a package should include any component integration costs. The cost of using an ASP should include estimated price increases.


System development acquisition2

System Development & Acquisition

MSS Application Outsourcing Options


Mss development outsourcing options

MSS DevelopmentOutsourcing Options

  • Application Service Providers (ASP)

    • A software vendor that offers leased soft-ware applications to organizations


Mss development outsourcing options1

MSS DevelopmentOutsourcing Options

  • Utility (on-demand) computing

    • Unlimited computing power and storage capacity that,

    • like electricity, water, telephone services,

    • can be obtained on demand, used, and reallocated for any application,

    • and billed on a pay-per-use basis


System development acquisition3

System Development & Acquisition

Prototyping


Prototyping advantages

PrototypingAdvantages

  • Short development time

  • Short user reaction time

    • i.e. feedback from user

  • Improved user understanding of the system

    • its information needs, and its capabilities

  • Low cost


Prototyping limitations

PrototypingLimitations

  • Gains obtained from cautiously stepping through each of the system’s lifecycle stages might be lost including:

    • A thorough understanding of the informa-tion system’s benefits and costs

    • A detailed description of the business’s information needs


Prototyping limitations1

PrototypingLimitations

  • Gains obtained from cautiously stepping through each of the system’s lifecycle stages might be lost including:

    • An easy-to-maintain information system design

    • A well-tested information system

    • Well-prepared users


Prototyping development process

PrototypingDevelopment Process

  • Users and managers, as well as an exe-cutive sponsor, must be involved

  • The analysis, design, and prototype im-plementation phases are iteratively per-formed

    • until a small prototype is sufficiently deve-loped


Prototyping development process1

PrototypingDevelopment Process

  • The final implementation takes place

  • Simultaneously, further iterations occur

    • as other subsystems or capabilities are added to the deployed system

    • until a fairly stable, comprehensive system evolves


Prototyping development process2

PrototypingDevelopment Process


Prototyping development process3

PrototypingDevelopment Process


Prototyping collaboration in prototyping

PrototypingCollaboration in Prototyping

  • The interaction of user, developer, and technology is extremely important in the prototyping process


Prototyping evaluation in prototyping

PrototypingEvaluation in Prototyping

  • Iterative design

    • A systematic process for system develop-ment that is used in MSS

      • produce a first version of MSS

      • then revise it and produce the second design version and so on

      • is an iterative design


Prototyping implementing prototyping

PrototypingImplementing Prototyping

  • Target small, tactical applications that show quick results

  • Use software components

  • Make application deployment iterative and open to customization

  • Use commodity hardware

  • Use object technology

    • including tools such as Java


Prototyping implementing prototyping1

PrototypingImplementing Prototyping

  • Break major projects into manageable, deliverable chunks

  • Use packaged applications whenever justifiable

  • Consider IT service providers as well as utility and grid computing

  • Use Web services, if possible


Prototyping successes factors

PrototypingSuccesses Factors

  • Users and managers should be invol-ved in every phase and iteration

  • Learning should be explicitly integrated into the design process

  • Prototyping should essentially bypass the formal information requirement defi-nition in the SDLC


Prototyping successes factors1

PrototypingSuccesses Factors

  • A key criterion associated with proto-typing is the short interval between iterations

  • The initial prototype must be low cost


Prototyping failures

PrototypingFailures

  • No prelaunch objectives or metrics

  • Too many major projects were conduc-ted simultaneously

  • The CEO set budgets and deadlines before the project team was involved

  • The budget and deadlines were not rea-listic


Prototyping failures1

PrototypingFailures

  • There was no insider presence on the data warehouse project team

  • An overburdened project manager was involved

  • The availability of source data was un-confirmed at the outset


Prototyping failures2

PrototypingFailures

  • No user demand for sophisticated data analysis was considered

  • No routine meetings of executive spon-sors and the project manager

  • Business managers were not initially involved


Prototyping lessons learned from failure

PrototypingLessons Learned from Failure

  • Most critical success factors for develo-ping a data warehouse

    • executive sponsorship

    • partnership of the IT staff and end users

  • Unclear understanding of the business objectives and how they are measured


Prototyping lessons learned from failure1

PrototypingLessons Learned from Failure

  • An incremental pilot project should occur to determine whether it is possi-ble to obtain the projected benefits

  • An organization should expect to make a major investment in ongoing manage-ment of the data warehouse

  • When all else fails, an organization should cut its losses and run


System development acquisition4

System Development & Acquisition

MSS Software Packages & Suites


Mss development criteria for selection

MSS DevelopmentCriteria for Selection

  • Selection criteria to buy or lease deci-sion

    • Flexibility

    • Information requirements

    • User friendliness

    • Hardware and software resources

    • Installation


Mss development criteria for selection1

MSS DevelopmentCriteria for Selection

  • Selection criteria for buy or lease deci-sion

    • Maintenance services

    • Vendor quality and track record

    • Estimating costs

    • Personnel

    • Technological evolution


Mss development criteria for selection2

MSS DevelopmentCriteria for Selection

  • Selection criteria for buy or lease deci-sion

    • Scalability

    • Sizing

    • Performance

    • Reliability

    • Security


Mss software packages suites third party providers

MSS Software Packages & Suites Third-party Providers

  • Specialized and functional software packages

  • MSS suite

    • An integrated collection of a large number of MSS tools that work together for applica-tions development


Mss software packages suites third party providers1

MSS Software Packages & Suites Third-party Providers

  • Representative MSS suites

    • MicroStrategy 8

    • Hyperion System 9 BI+

    • BusinessObjects XI

    • Microsoft BizTalk Server 2004

    • Oracle’s MSS Products

    • IBM’s WebSphere Commerce Suite


Mss software packages suites third party providers2

MSS Software Packages & Suites Third-party Providers


The end thank you for listening

THE ENDThank you for listening


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