Western civilizations unit 4 ch 7 4
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Western Civilizations Unit 4 CH 7 4. Agricultural and Economic Revolution Culture of the high middle ages C. 1000-1300 AD. Changes in Agriculture. Population explosion (38-74 mil. in 300 years) The settlement of the 9 th century invaders led to peace and stability Climate improved

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Western Civilizations Unit 4 CH 7 4

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Western civilizations unit 4 ch 7 4

Western CivilizationsUnit 4CH 7 4

Agricultural and Economic Revolution

Culture of the high middle ages

C. 1000-1300 AD


Changes in agriculture

Changes in Agriculture

  • Population explosion (38-74 mil. in 300 years)

    • The settlement of the 9th century invaders led to peace and stability

    • Climate improved

    • More land farmed = more food

    • Changes in technology (next slide)


Inventions and the agricultural revolution after 1000

Inventions and the Agricultural Revolution (after 1000)

  • Water and wind mills

  • Heavier plows made of iron (Carruca)

  • Collar harness (horses instead of oxen)

  • The horseshoe

  • The three field system

  • The result

    • Better crops, more food, better diet

    • Between 1000 and 1300 the population of Western Europe doubled


The growth of trade

The Growth of Trade

  • Population explosion = an increase in demand

    • The first city states (Venice, Genoa, Pisa) established trade with the East (Asia-Byz-Eur)

      • Learning of Arabs and Greeks now appears in the West

  • New business practices made trade easier “The Commercial Revolution”

    • Coins (money economy)

    • Banking (letters of credit)

    • Partnerships (joint stock Co’s)


The revival of towns

The Revival of Towns

  • Old Roman cities come back to life

    • Craftsmen now produce goods for trade and create the new middle class or Bourgeoisie

    • Guilds: Apprentice, Journeyman, Master

      • Organizations of crafts workers (unions)

    • Government: right to rule themselves from Charters obtained from the Lord or King

    • Town Life (dirty, smelly, dangerous)

  • Labor lords eventually become land lords

    • Serfs become rent paying peasants (tenant farmers)


Romanesque v gothic architecture

Romanesque v. Gothic Architecture

  • Romanesque Architecture: 11th and 12th Centuries

    • Fortress like appearance, rounded arch, heavy ceilings to support massive thick walls, small windows very little light or color

  • Gothic Architecture (Began in the late 1100’s)

    • Between 1180 and 1270 80 Gothic Cathedrals were built in France

    • Pointed arches (flying buttresses) high ceilings, thin walls, stained glass windows, light, color


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