Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance
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Francesca D ’ Antona INAF-OAR. plus my coworkers. Paolo Ventura Roberta Carini INAF-OAR. Annibale D ’ Ercole INAF-OABo. Enrico Vesperini Indiana State University. Lithium patterns, Globular Clusters formation and the Big Bang Lithium abundance . Francesca Matteucci

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Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

Francesca D’Antona

INAF-OAR

plus my coworkers

Paolo Ventura

Roberta Carini

INAF-OAR

Annibale D’Ercole

INAF-OABo

Enrico Vesperini

Indiana State University

Lithium patterns, Globular Clusters formation

and the Big Bang Lithium abundance 

Francesca Matteucci

University of Trieste

and…

Chemical evolution in the Universe: the next 30 years 

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


A short historical summary

A short historical summary

  • Fundamental discovery of the “Lithium plateau” by Spite & Spite (1982) at A(Li)~2.3 (mass fraction ~10-9)

  • Is this the “Big Bang” Lithium abundance, or is it the solar system value, 10 times larger?

  • (at that time, the problem was the difference between pop. II results -2.3- and the solar system value -3.3: no hint that WMAP would provide an “intermediate” Big Bang Lithium abundance)

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

2) BB Li = solar system Li =  depletion of Li due to surface events in pop. II

1) BB Li = Spite’ Li  production of Li during galactic chem. evol.

3) intermediate BB Li  depletion of Li due to surface events in pop. II + production due to chem.ev.

0.0

A short historical summary

  • 1982: discovery of the “Lithium plateau” by Spite & Spite (1982)

already at that time, and in following years, three possibilities were listed:

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

Modelling chemical evolution of Li

D’Antona & Matteucci 1990

1990 data of Li chemical evolution

our best model included novae massive AGB strong production by Hot BottomBurning

my best collaborator…

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

Romano et al (2010) (unpublished) take into account Ventura’s new Li-yields including super-AGBs, and show that it might work!

Modelling chemical evolution of Li

… after D’Antona & Matteucci 1990…

many models were published by others: all of them included “plausible” but “invented” and very large yields for the Lithium manifactured in the AGB phase

Romano, Matteucci, Ventura & D’Antona (2001) take into account Ventura’s new Li-yields for AGBs, and show that AGBs are poor contributors!

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

The Cameron-Fowler (1971) model and HBB

◊ Li produced by the chain

in a convective hot region, so that 7Be is transported to cooler regions before it turns into Li. Convective mixing brings Li back to the hot region where it can be burned, but it temporarily survives in the envelope and in the atmosphere. Production of Li is linked to the 3He abundance in the region (remnant of incomplete p-p chain) and lasts until there is 3He

THBB >4 x 107 K

◊ Very luminous AGB stars

a hydrostatic, slow process:

the bottom of the convective envelope reaches the H-shell burning region and nuclear reaction products are transported to the surface by convection

Iben 1973,

Sackman, Smith & Despain 1974,

Scalo, Despain & Ulrich 1975  hot bottom convective envelopes  Hot Bottom Burning (HBB)

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

Hot Bottom Burning : Li, C and O

3He + 4He -> 7Be -> 7Li

(Cameron & Fowler 1971)

T>4 x 107 K

In these same envelopes, Carbon also burns, so that the Carbon star features disappear

12C -> 14N

T>6.5 x 107 K

A third possible processing occurs at even larger T: H- burning through the ON cycle (this may occur in the low metallicity massive AGBs and is possibly at the basis of the self-enrichment process in GCs):

T>8 x 107 K

16O -> 14N

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

HBB temperatures in pop. II

ON processing is at the basis of the O reduction in second generation stars in Globular Clusters!

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

E

I

GC

P

halo field stars

The O-Na anticorrelation in GCs

Existence of “anomalous” stars well known from the ’80s

Carretta et al. 2009 A&A 450, 523

grand total of 1958 individual red giant stars in the 19 GCs of the project. [Na/Fe] and [O/Fe] ratios from GIRAFFE spectra are shown as open (red) circles; abundance ratios obtained from UVES spectra (Paper VIII) are superimposed as filled (blue) circles and show no offset from the GIRAFFE sample. Arrows indicate upper limits in oxygen abundances.

halo stars should “never” be second generation

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

GC formation is in two steps

THE NEW PARADIGM OF GC FORMATION:

after a first generation (FG) of stars is born, forming a globular cluster –or even something very different, like a dwarf galaxy-, a second star formation event, based (at least partly) on matter processed within FG stars (same Z!) gives origin to the chemically anomaloussecond generation (SG) stars. Loss of the ‘environmental’ dwarf galaxy, or of MOST of the FG stars from the former GC, leaves out a globular cluster as it is today

where is matter processed?

FRMS (Decressin et al. 2007…)

AGB-SuperAGB stars (Ventura et al. 2001 & following)

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

??

this is the range of abundances in low metallicity field stars

Models provide O depletion, Na production, but…

models!!

anticorrelation

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

Successful models: dilution

AGB ejecta

+

pristine gas

provide the mixture of composition that can explain the observations

a “dilution” model is necessary in order to obtain the observed anticorrelation

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

“Strong” and “mild” O-Na anticorrelations

successful models should be able to reproduce different cases, as exemplified by NGC 2808 and M4

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

HST Treasury project GO13297 (Piotto)

First data reduction of NGC2808 data


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

Chemical evolution models

1) a ‘pure ejecta’ SG from super-AGBs, high Y

2) an intermediate SG formed by ejecta of massive AGBs plus pristine matter reaccreted

data from Carretta et al. 2008 -2009

D’Ercole et al. 2012, yields from Ventura& D’Antona 2011

NGC 2808

0) FG in place

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

Shortly: model for clusters with “strong” chemical anomalies

1: FG in place,

standard C.C. Na-poor, O-rich

3: intermediate SG: mixture of massive AGB ejecta and pristine gas:

C.C. moderately Na-rich and

O-poor

2: extreme SG first phases of cooling flow:

C.C. of super-AGB ejecta: Na-rich,

O-deprived

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

Strong dilution in clusters with ‘mild’ O-Na

data from Marino et al. 2008

M4

1) the ‘pure ejecta’ SG from super-AGBs, high Y, must be inhibited

2) mixing occurs with a larger % of pristine gas, SG formation provides small O-depletion and Y spread, some Na enhancement

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

Shortly: model for clusters with “mild” chemical anomalies

2: SG is born directly from pristine gas contaminated by massive AGB – superAGB ejecta:

C.C. moderately Na-rich and scarcely deprived in O

1: FG in place,

standard C.C. Na-poor, O-rich

2: extreme SG first phases of cooling flow:

C.C. of super-AGB ejecta: Na-rich,

O-deprived

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

What we expect for Lithium?

Melendez & Ramirez Li plateau for

-3<[Fe/H]<-1

(slope for Fe/H<-2.5 not included)

BUT GC dwarfs seem to have a larger dispersion: is it due to the presence of SG stars?

Lind et al. 2009

Pasquini et al. 2007

Bonifacio et al. 2007

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

1.5

5

e

What we expect for Lithium?

6

5

higher M 

larger T_bottom

 stronger and faster Li production

4

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

0.0006

0.001

Metallicity dependence at M=6Msun

higher Z 

smaller T_bottom

 smaller and slower Li production

0.004

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

But production does not mean yield!

two ingredients are important:

how much Li is made,

and how long it lasts

so that mass loss can recycle it in the i.s.m.

ANDmass loss is another big unknown parameter (both absolute values and dependence on the luminosity)

Ventura et al. 2002 A&A 339,215

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

the yield depends dramatically on mass loss!

here we see the role of mass loss at Z=10-3

Center: ‘standard’ Mdot

Upper models: Mdot*2

Lower: Mdot from Vassiliadis & Wood

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

In VD models, mass loss rate calibrated on Li in the MC O-rich luminous giants

A(Li) decreases with initial mass due to the faster He3 destruction in spite of larger abundances reached in the envelope

A(Li) re-increases due both to the stronger production and huge mass loss

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

M4

D’Orazi & Marino 2010 giants shifted

Monaco et al. 2012 turnoff stars

Observational results in some clusters

Na-rich (SG) stars may have just 0.1 dex smaller Li than Na-poor (FG) stars!

Similar results in other clusters: NGC 6397, e.g.

Is there an influence of AGB Li production? Or not?

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

Observational results in some clusters

Use the D’Ercole et al. 2012 chemical evolution model

We have a further ambiguity: Which is the Lithium content of the diluting “pristine” matter? Is it the”observed” value A(Li)=2.2-2.3, or we have to make the hypothesis that the true value is the Big Bang abundance, now given at A(Li)=2.6-2.7 ??? In the latter case, we have also to assume that the same amount of Li surface depletion takes place in SG stars…

THIS CHOICE MAKES A DIFFERENCE IN THE MODEL RESULTS

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

Possibilities (schematically)

1: OBSERVED:

FG stars

A(Li)=2.2-2.3

3: SG GAS:

mixture of gas having either a) or b) plus Li of relevant AGB ejecta

4: SG STARS:

a) the Li at the surface is that resulting from the mixture above

b) Li observed is that resulting from the mixture, but REDUCED by the same mechanism which brings pop.II Li from 2.6-2.7 to 2.2-2.3

2: but in the gas forming the FG and diluting the SG:

a) A(Li)=2.2-2.3

b) A(Li)=2.6-2.7

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

A(Li)pristine=2.2

A(Li) pristine=2.7

A(Li)pristine=2.2

A(Li)pristine=2.7

Modelling M4

model M4-3

A(Li)=2. in ejecta of 7.5 and 8Msun

result is OK also if we assume NO Li in the AGB ejecta, as done in the above figure…

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

Result to bring home, from modelling M4

The super-AGB yields seem to be very overestimated to be consistent with M4 data for Li

If there is Li in the ejecta, or not, does not make any difference in the final result: We mainly need that the dilution of Na-rich gas with pristine gas is strong enough that the Lithium abundance is dominated by the primordial gas abundance

The choice a) vs. b) for the primordial Li is not discriminating (unless we take seriously the super-AGB yields)

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

intermediate SG

The case of clusters with strong anomalies

IF the yields of super-AGBs by VD2011 are reliable, we should find a few very Li-rich stars (A(Li)=2.7-3) in the clusters having an extreme SG, born directly from super-AGB ejecta, e.g. in wCen, NGC 2808! (No evidence so far: these yields are too large?)

A(Li)pristine=2.3

A(Li)pristine=2.6

extreme SG

FG

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

Role of intermediate SG

intermediate SG

A(Li)pristine=2.6

Slope = 0.6

extreme SG

FG

A(Li)pristine=2.3

Slope=0.37

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

The case of NGC 6752

no extreme anomalies inthe O-Na anticorr.

Y spread relatively small (from MS)

Shen et al. (2010) show that Li and O are correlated, with a slope much smaller than 1 (corresponding to dilution with matter devoid of both O and Li)

slope 1

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

The case of NGC 6752

DA(Li)/D[O/Fe]=0.27±0.05

DA(Li)/D[O/Fe]=0.62±0.05

A(Li)pristine=2.3

A(Li)pristine=2.6

if we had 1) better oxygen – lithium data; 2) better confidence in the chemical evolution model  we could use the data as a TEST for Big Bang Lithium!

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

Summary

◊ Still we are not sure about how to interpret the observed abundance of Li in pop. II stars

◊ Galactic evolution of Lithium requires massive AGB – superAGB as source of Lithium

◊ The Hot Bottom Burning producing Lithium is also the source of further nucleosynthesis in AGB – superAGB, and the most plausible source of the processed matter forming second generation stars in Globular Clusters

◊ Modelling of GC abundance patterns (e.g. O – Na) can be successfully achieved. This allows to predict Li distribution among GC stars

◊ The result of simulations depend on the Big Bang Lithium abundance assumed to be available in the matter diluting the AGb ejecta. Observations of Li in GCs may in the end constrain the Original Li.

Meeting in honour of Francesca Matteucci, Castiglione, Sept. 16-20 2013


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

A MESSAGE FROM ITALO:

Hi Francesca: what can I say? I’m proud of you!But I’m proud of me as well, for

I could help in pushing aheadsomebody who is BETTER,and not WORSEthan I am!

So: to the next 30 yr of research …(my art. 10)!


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

Francesca, best wishes for your life, and good work for the future 30yr (is this enough?)

from myself and Italo,thank you, you know why


Lithium patterns globular clusters formation and the big bang lithium abundance

M4

D’Orazi & Marino 2010


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