Alternative Silvicultural Techniques for European Sub-alpine and Montane Protection Forests:
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Alternative Silvicultural Techniques for European Sub-alpine and Montane Protection Forests: Managing for community protection, disturbance resistance and resiliency, and timber production Harold Zald, Dept. Forest Science, OSU. Chamonix, France. Protection forest overview

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Alternative silvicultural techniques for european sub alpine and montane protection forests

Alternative Silvicultural Techniques for European Sub-alpine and Montane Protection Forests:

Managing for community protection, disturbance resistance and resiliency, and timber production

Harold Zald, Dept. Forest Science, OSU

Chamonix, France


Alternative silvicultural techniques for european sub alpine and montane protection forests

  • Protection forest overview

    • Protecting from what?

    • Protective functions

    • Resistance and resiliency

    • Protective attributes

    • Alternative silviculture


Alternative silvicultural techniques for european sub alpine and montane protection forests

  • Protecting from What?

  • Protection from rockfall, avalanches,

  • and debris flows

  • Engineered mitigation is expensive!!!

  • The role of forests in reducing rockfall

  • increasingly appreciated


Alternative silvicultural techniques for european sub alpine and montane protection forests

Protective functions, resistance, and resiliency

Direct-protection functions

directly protect people, buildings, and infrastructure

against the impacts of natural hazards such as rockfall

and avalanches

Site-protection functions

protect the site a forest occupies against processes

such as soil erosion and debris flows

Stability of protection forests over time requires managing for both

resistance and resilience to rockfall and avalanche

Resistance

The ability of a protection forest to slow or dissipate the energy

and matter generated in a rockfall or avalanche.

Resilience

The ability to recover direct-protection resistance characteristics

following a natural hazard (or other) disturbance event.


Alternative silvicultural techniques for european sub alpine and montane protection forests

Protection forest attributes: Stem Density

Increased stem densities increase resistance to rockfall and avalanches

Dorren et al. 2004. Geomorphology

Simulated rockfall patterns (rockfall accumulation in black)

a) current forest, b) 50% stem reduction, c)100% stem reduction.


Alternative silvicultural techniques for european sub alpine and montane protection forests

Protection forest attributes:

  • Increased stem diameters

  • increase resistance to

  • rockfall and avalanches

  • However importance

  • of diameter varies

  • Long live crowns


Alternative silvicultural techniques for european sub alpine and montane protection forests

Protection forest attributes: Forest Floor/Understory

  • Regeneration

  • (for resistance and resiliency)

  • Large down wood

  • Shrubs

  • Ground structure (rocks)


Alternative silvicultural techniques for european sub alpine and montane protection forests

Alternative Silvicultural Applications

Density/Size Management

Developmental Stage

Regeneration

Understory/Forest Floor Management

Silvicultural Application Layout

Landscape Considerations


Alternative silvicultural techniques for european sub alpine and montane protection forests

Density, Diameters, and Developmental Stages

  • Greater resistance at the cost of lower resilience

  • Implication: manage for earlier developmental stages

  • Especially important for older Norway spruce plantations

  • Best balance between resistance and resilience

  • may occur at what is roughly analogous to the

  • understory reinitiation stage - at the stand level


Alternative silvicultural techniques for european sub alpine and montane protection forests

  • Regeneration

    • Clumped planting

    • Coppice method

    • when possible

    • Regeneration slits

Ott 1989 Schonenburger 2001. For. Eco. Man.


Alternative silvicultural techniques for european sub alpine and montane protection forests

Harvest Layout and Landscape Considerations

  • Conserve forest floor

  • structure

  • Position harvest units

  • with respect to hazards,

  • areas to protect, and

  • surround forests, non-

  • forest vegetation, and

  • any engineered

  • mitigation structures

Dorren et al. 2004. For. Eco. Man.


Alternative silvicultural techniques for european sub alpine and montane protection forests

Changing Objectives, Changing Perceptions

  • When you look at these two forests, which is better for:

  • Timber production?

  • Protection function resistance?

  • Protection forest resilience?


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