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Animal Behavior. Chapter 44. Table of Contents. Section 1 Development of Behavior Section 2 Types of Animal Behavior. Section 1 Development of Behavior. Chapter 44. Objectives. Identify four questions asked by biologists who study behavior.

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Table of contents

Animal Behavior

Chapter 44

Table of Contents

Section 1 Development of Behavior

Section 2 Types of Animal Behavior


Objectives

Section 1 Development of Behavior

Chapter 44

Objectives

  • Identifyfour questions asked by biologists who study behavior.

  • Describean example of an innate behavior.

  • Comparefour types of learned behavior.

  • Explainhow learning and genes can interact to affect behavior.


The study of behavior

Section 1 Development of Behavior

Chapter 44

The Study of Behavior

  • Ethologists are biologists who specialize in the scientific study of animal behavior.

  • Behavior can be defined as any action that an individual carries out in response to a stimulus or to the environment.

    • Two examples of behavior are a snake playing dead and a chimpanzee gathering termites on a stick.


The study of behavior continued

Section 1 Development of Behavior

Chapter 44

The Study of Behavior, continued

  • In order to better study behavior ethologists ask four main questions:

    • What causes the behavior?

    • What is the role of genes in the behavior?

    • What is the behavior’s evolutionary history?

    • How does the behavior affect the organism’s survival and reproduction?


The study of behavior continued1

Section 1 Development of Behavior

Chapter 44

The Study of Behavior, continued

  • Genes and Behavior

    • One important factor of behavior is how certain genes affect it.

    • Ethologists study this by mating an animal that shows the behavior to a mate that does not.

    • By studying the offspring of this mating pair ethologists can see how the gene is passed on.


The study of behavior continued2

Section 1 Development of Behavior

Chapter 44

The Study of Behavior, continued

  • Natural Selection and Behavior

    • Ethologists have hypothesized that animals usually behave in ways that promote their survival and offspring production.

    • Because genes control some behaviors, natural selection can affect genetic variation that involves behavioral genes.


Innate behavior

Section 1 Development of Behavior

Chapter 44

Innate Behavior

  • Some behaviors are inherited actions that are performed effectively the first time without being taught. These types of behaviors are called innate behaviors.

  • Fixed Action Pattern

    • Fixed action pattern is a type of innate behavior that all members of a species perform the same way each time they perform it.


Innate behavior continued

Section 1 Development of Behavior

Chapter 44

Innate Behavior, continued

  • Fixed Action Pattern, continued

    • Fixed action patterns continue from start to finish without modification once an environmental stimulus triggers them.

    • Other factors besides environmental stimulus may influence whether or not a fixed action pattern is stimulated.


Innate behaviors and roles for bees

Section 1 Development of Behavior

Chapter 44

Innate Behaviors and Roles for Bees

Click below to watch the Visual Concept.

Visual Concept


Learned behavior

Section 1 Development of Behavior

Chapter 44

Learned Behavior

  • When behaviors are modified by experience, it is called learning.

  • Four types of learning are habituation, operant conditioning, classical conditioning, and problem solving learning.

  • The study of learned behavior is central to much of ethology.


Learned behavior continued

Section 1 Development of Behavior

Chapter 44

Learned Behavior, continued

  • Habituation

    • The simplest type of learning is called habituation.

    • Habituation is a type of learning in which an animal learns to ignore a frequent harmless stimulus.

    • Habituation can save energy, yet still allow for other everyday activities.


Learned behavior continued1

Section 1 Development of Behavior

Chapter 44

Learned Behavior, continued

  • Operant Conditioning

    • A type of trial and error learning is called operant conditioning, in which specific animal behaviors are deterred or reinforced by external actions upon the animal.

    • Operant conditioning usually happens in a controlled setting. Operant conditioning also is easier to learn if related to natural skills the animal will use for survival or reproduction.


Learned behavior continued2

Section 1 Development of Behavior

Chapter 44

Learned Behavior, continued

  • Classical Conditioning

    • Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which an animal learns to produce a specific response to a predictive stimulus in anticipation of receiving external reinforcement.

    • Classical conditioning can occur naturally and artificially.


Conditioning

Section 1 Development of Behavior

Chapter 44

Conditioning

Click below to watch the Visual Concept.

Visual Concept


Learned behavior continued3

Section 1 Development of Behavior

Chapter 44

Learned Behavior, continued

  • Problem-Solving and Reasoning

    • In problem-solving learning, an animal uses several learning mechanisms, such as watching an older offspring or trial and error, to learn a type of behavior.


Learned behavior continued4

Section 1 Development of Behavior

Chapter 44

Learned Behavior, continued

  • Problem-Solving and Reasoning, continued

    • One type of problem-solving, reasoning, involves the ability to solve a problem not previously encountered by the individual in a way that is not dictated by instinct.

    • This type of behavior occurs without trial-and-error, as if the animal developed an insight into how to solve the problem.


Genes learning and behavior

Section 1 Development of Behavior

Chapter 44

Genes, Learning, and Behavior

  • Most ethologists today have come to agree that animal behavior, especially complex behavior, is affected both by genes and by experience.

  • Imprinting

    • One class of behavior that is determined by both genes and learning is called imprinting. Imprinting is a form of learning in which a young animal forms permanent associations with its environment.


Genes learning and behavior continued

Section 1 Development of Behavior

Chapter 44

Genes, Learning, and Behavior, continued

  • Imprinting, continued

    • Imprinting occurs during a specific phase in an animal’s development. This period of development is called a sensitive period.

    • Certain forms of learning that occur during this time are very difficult to change later.


Objectives1

Section 2 Types of Animal Behavior

Chapter 44

Objectives

  • Discussthe optimality hypothesis and feeding behavior.

  • Listthree types of competitive behavior.

  • Describethree different types of reproductive behavior.

  • Namefive kinds of communication.

  • Identifycosts and benefits of social behavior.

  • Describefour types of cyclic behavior.


Feeding behavior

Section 2 Types of Animal Behavior

Chapter 44

Feeding Behavior

  • Animals must balance the need to obtain energy with the amount that they spend to get energy.

  • The optimality hypothesis is the idea that animals tend to behave in a way that maximizes food gathering, while minimizing effort and exposure to predators.


Competitive behavior

Section 2 Types of Animal Behavior

Chapter 44

Competitive Behavior

  • Because most resources are limited, competition for these resources occurs quite often.

  • There are many types of behavior that can be seen as a result of competition: aggressive behavior, territorial behavior, and dominance hierarchies.


Competitive behavior continued

Section 2 Types of Animal Behavior

Chapter 44

Competitive Behavior, continued

  • Aggressive Behavior

    • Aggressive behavior can be defined as physical conflict or threatening behavior between animals.

    • Aggressive behavior can be seen among males looking for a mate.


Competitive behavior continued1

Section 2 Types of Animal Behavior

Chapter 44

Competitive Behavior, continued

  • Territorial Behavior

    • A territory is an area that an animal or group of animals occupies and defends from other members of the same species.

    • An animal will establish its territory in any number of ways and defend this area at all costs, because this helps guarantee the survival of that animal’s offspring.


Competitive behavior continued2

Section 2 Types of Animal Behavior

Chapter 44

Competitive Behavior, continued

  • Dominance Hierarchies

    • Competition can lead to a clear ranking of individuals within the group, from most dominant to most subordinate. This type of ranking is called a dominance hierarchy.

    • This type of hierarchy reduces the need for competition and aggressive behavior as subordinates learn to submit to avoid conflict.


Reproductive behavior

Section 2 Types of Animal Behavior

Chapter 44

Reproductive Behavior

  • Elaborate behaviors have evolved around the process of reproduction in many animals, which may allow these animals to recognize members of the same species or members of the opposite sex, or may even be an indicator of good health.


Reproductive behavior continued

Section 2 Types of Animal Behavior

Chapter 44

Reproductive Behavior, continued

  • Sexual Selection

    • Animals generally choose mates based on certain traits or behaviors, and this type of tendency is referred to as sexual selection.

    • These traits or behaviors will appear with increased frequency in a population, because these individuals are most likely to produce offspring.


Reproductive behavior continued1

Section 2 Types of Animal Behavior

Chapter 44

Reproductive Behavior, continued

  • Sexual Selection, continued

    • Another means of attracting a mate involves certain behaviors and is called courtship.

    • In some species, courtship can include a complex series of behaviors called rituals.

      • A ritual is usually instinctive and may consist of specific signals and responses that indicate a willingness to mate.


Reproductive behavior continued2

Section 2 Types of Animal Behavior

Chapter 44

Reproductive Behavior, continued

  • Mating Systems

    • Mating systems increase the likelihood that young will survive.

    • Male polygamy (more than one female), monogamy, and female polygamy (more than one male) are reproductive strategies that are determined primarily by the amount and type of parental care required by the young.


Reproductive behavior continued3

Section 2 Types of Animal Behavior

Chapter 44

Reproductive Behavior, continued

  • Parental Behavior

    • The benefit of parental care is that it increases the likelihood that young will survive to adulthood.

    • The costs are that parental care can generally only be provided for a small number of young because of the large energy investment by the parent.


Nest building behavior

Section 2 Types of Animal Behavior

Chapter 44

Nest Building Behavior


Communication

Section 2 Types of Animal Behavior

Chapter 44

Communication

  • Communication is a transfer of a signal or message from one animal to another that results in some type of response.

  • There are many ways animals can communicate, including sight, sound, chemicals, touch, and possibly even language.


Communication continued

Section 2 Types of Animal Behavior

Chapter 44

Communication, continued

  • Sight and Sound

    • Color can be used to communicate certain ideas to another animals.

    • Bright colors often serve as a warning that an animal is poisonous. This is called aposematic coloration.

    • Some animals gain protection by looking like a dangerous animal. This strategy is called mimicry.

    • Animals can also use sound to communicate between species.


Communication continued1

Section 2 Types of Animal Behavior

Chapter 44

Communication, continued

  • Chemicals

    • Chemical communication can convey information over greater distance and time than can communication by sight or sound.

    • Some animals release chemicals called pheromones that cause individuals of the same species to react in a predictable way.


Communication continued2

Section 2 Types of Animal Behavior

Chapter 44

Communication, continued

  • Touch

    • Species that inhabit dark hives or dens often communicate by touch in addition to using sound or chemicals.


Communication continued3

Section 2 Types of Animal Behavior

Chapter 44

Communication, continued

  • Language

    • In order to be considered language, there are certain criteria that must be met, and most animal systems are missing at least one of these criteria.

    • Among these are phonemes (sounds that can be combined to form words),productivity (many combinations of phonemes to produce different meanings), and grammar (rules for combining words that affect the meaning).


Social behavior

Section 2 Types of Animal Behavior

Chapter 44

Social Behavior

  • Social behavior can be defined as any kind of interaction between two or more animals, usually of the same species.

  • Some species spend the majority of their lives in social groups, others do not.


Social behavior continued

Section 2 Types of Animal Behavior

Chapter 44

Social Behavior, continued

  • Social Groups

    • Social groups have evolved in the animal kingdom because there are benefits to living in a group. These benefits can include protection from predators and more success in foraging.

    • There are also disadvantages to living in a social group, such as competition during courtship, theft of eggs by nonbreeding males, and possibly transmission of disease.


Social behavior continued1

Section 2 Types of Animal Behavior

Chapter 44

Social Behavior, continued

  • Altruism

    • When one member of a social group acts in a way that benefits other members of the group while putting the individual at a disadvantage, this type of behavior is called altruism.

    • There are several ways in which an individual can be altruistic towards his social group.


Cyclic behavior

Section 2 Types of Animal Behavior

Chapter 44

Cyclic Behavior

  • An animal displays cyclic behaviors when it has synchronized its behavior with changes in its environment.

  • Biological Rhythms

    • There are many types of biological rhythms.

      • A daily biological cycle is called a circadian rhythm.


Cyclic behavior continued

Section 2 Types of Animal Behavior

Chapter 44

Cyclic Behavior, continued

  • Biological Rhythms, continued

    • Another type of biological rhythm is one based on the tides, and is called a lunar cycle.

    • There are also annual biological cycles. One such annual cycle is called hibernation.

      • Hibernation is a period of inactivity and lowered body temperature that some animals undergo in the winter as protection against the cold weather and lack of food.


Cyclic behavior continued1

Section 2 Types of Animal Behavior

Chapter 44

Cyclic Behavior, continued

  • Migratory Behavior

    • Migration is a periodic group movement that is characteristic of a population or species.

    • Migration is exhausting and risky yet it allows animals to find habitats with plentiful seasonal foods and provides nesting sites safe from predators.


Animal behavior

Section 2 Types of Animal Behavior

Chapter 44

Animal Behavior


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