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Undergraduate School of Criminal Justice. Unit 3 Seminar. Professor Chris Lim, MACJ, Ph.D.(ABD). Email: SLim@kaplan.edu. Seminar Rules. Refrain from “SIDEBARS” and “INAPPRIATE” comments. No personal discussion No obscenities; No personal attacks.

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Undergraduate School of Criminal Justice

Unit 3 Seminar


Chris Lim, MACJ, Ph.D.(ABD)

Email: SLim@kaplan.edu

Seminar rules
Seminar Rules

  • Refrain from “SIDEBARS” and “INAPPRIATE” comments.

  • No personal discussion

  • No obscenities;

  • No personal attacks.

  • Acceptable! - Jokes are lovely, friendly teasing is fine.


  • Our seminars have live audio-you will be able to hear me! Students will use the message area to type in questions and comments.

  • Seminar schedule

    • 10 minutes for Q&A

    • 40 minutes of topics

    • 10 minutes for more Q&A and wrap up

    • We use the entire hour!

      *Schedule can be changed at anytime at instructor’s discretions

Outline the processes and problems
Outline: The Processes and Problems

  • Construct the Research Question(s)

  • Determine the Research Strategy

  • Assure that the Research is Ethical

Unit 2 concepts variables
Unit 2 –Concepts & Variables

One of the challenges of research is being able to identify appropriate variables for the concepts you want to study. 

  • What is concept?

  • What is variable?

The Language of Research

  • Concept - a mental image that summarizes a set of similar observations, feelings, or ideas

  • Conceptualization - the process of specifying what we mean by a term

    • Deductive research - translates portions of an abstract theory into specific variables that can be used in testable hypotheses

    • Inductive research - important part of the process used to make sense of related observations

The language of research
The Language of Research

  • What is a Variable

    • Characteristic or concept that is measured

    • Is not the same for everyone in the study

  • What is an Independent (IV) Variable?

    • Cause

  • What is a Dependent (DV) Variable?

    • Effect


  • To use deductive reasoning, first state a hypothesis that is derived from propositions presented in a theory

    • Statement about empirical reality, involving a relationship between two or more variables (called “independent” and “dependent” variables)

    • It can also be understood as a statement about what you expect your data to show, based on the theory you are testing

    • We use variables in formulating hypotheses and research questions (We also use variables to measure other important concepts in research.)

  • A hypothesis

    • implies that a change in one variable is related to a change in the other variable

    • is a declarative statement – a complete sentence

    • not only proposes that two variables are related, but also proposes the direction of the relationship

Independent and dependent variables
Independent and Dependent Variables

  • Independent variable (IV)

    • A variable that is hypothesized to cause, or lead to, variation in another variable.

  • Dependent variable (DV)

    • A variable that is hypothesized to vary depending on or under the influence of another variable

    • A phenomenon you want to explain

  • May also think of IVs and DVs in terms of …..

    • Cause (IV) and Effect (DV)

    • If-then statements: If the IV increases/decreases/changes then the DV increases/decreases/changes.

    • Grammar: Subject (IV), verb (“causes” or “predicts”), Object (DV)

  • Most concepts can be either IV or DV, depending on the specific study and population

Ways to understand a hypothesis
Ways to Understand a Hypothesis

  • Cause (IV) and effect (DV)

    • Ethnicity(IV/cause)influences one’s Attitude toward the Death Penalty (DV/effect).

  • If-then:

    • If Age(IV) increases, then Attitude toward the Death Penalty (DV) changes.

  • Grammar: subject (IV), verb, object (DV)

    • Ethnicity(IV/ subject) influences (verb) ones Attitude toward the Death Penalty (DV/object).

Unlocking the keys to success
Unlocking the Keys to Success!

  • Please remember to contact me if you have questions or if you need help with anything.

  • Each class you successfully complete unlocks another piece of your future! Have a great term and I look forward to working with all of you!

Thank you for your participation!Don’t forget to do your assignments and submit them promptly.See you next week and have a great week!