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Learning goals. Understand the main classifications of psychological disorders and common diagnoses Identify the various origins of psychological disorders Identify characteristics or criteria that may indicate a psychological disorder. Discussion questions:.

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learning goals
Learning goals
  • Understand the main classifications of psychological disorders and common diagnoses
  • Identify the various origins of psychological disorders
  • Identify characteristics or criteria that may indicate a psychological disorder
discussion questions
Discussion questions:
  • Look at the definition of a psychological disorder. Do you think this definition is adequate? Explain.
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages to labeling people with various psychological disorders?
general categories of disorders
General Categories of Disorders
  • There are numerous types of psychological disorders and thousands of specific diagnosis
  • Common categories:
    • Anxiety Disorders
    • Somatoform Disorders
    • Dissociative Disorders
    • Mood Disorders
    • Schizophrenia Disorders
    • Personality Disorders
psychological disorders
Psychological Disorders
  • behavior is atypical, disturbing, maladaptive and unjustifiable
  • origins of psychological disorders:
    • medical model (biological perspective)
    • social-cultural perspective
    • behavioral (learning) perspective
    • cognitive perspective
    • psychoanalytic perspective
anxiety disorders
Anxiety Disorders
  • intense, distressing, persistent anxiety -or- maladaptive behaviors to reduce anxiety
  • types:
    • generalized anxiety disorder
    • phobic disorders
    • obsessive-compulsive disorder
generalized anxiety disorder
Generalized anxiety disorder
  • continual apprehension, tension and arousal
  • constant autonomic nervous system arousal
  • person has difficulty identifying causes of the tension/fear and thus cannot avoid it
  • may experience panic attacks
    • short episodes of intense fear/terror
  • person often responds by isolating self
phobic disorders
Phobic Disorders
  • persistent, irrational, maladaptive fear of a specific object, activity or situation
  • develop coping mechanisms to avoid/deal with feared object
  • examples:
    • agoraphobia xenophobia
    • claustrophobia mikrophobia
    • uxoriphobia phonophobia
    • phobophobia triskaidekaphobia
obsessive compulsive disorder
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • persistent, maladaptive, unwanted repetitive thoughts or actions
  • repetitive thoughts/actions that interfere with daily life or cause distress
  • obsessions
    • repetitive thoughts
  • compulsions
    • repetitive behaviors
explaining anxiety disorders
Explaining anxiety disorders
  • psychoanalytic perspective
    • childhood repression of intolerable ideas, events or feelings
  • learning (behavioral) perspective
    • learn fears through conditioning or past experiences
  • biological perspective
    • innate disposition to fear certain objects (things deemed dangerous to survival)
    • overarousal of certain brain areas (impulse control and habits)
somatoform disorders
Somatoform Disorders
  • distressing physical symptoms with no apparent physical cause
  • factors:
    • physical functioning must be lost or altered
    • symptoms cannot be explained by a know physical condition
    • indication that psychological factors have produced the symptom
    • victims frequently indifferent to the physical loss
    • symptoms not under voluntary control
somatoform disorders1
Somatoform Disorders
  • conversion disorder
    • specific, genuine physical problem with no physiological explanation
    • example- paralysis from the waist down may be due to history of sexual abuse
  • hypochondriasis
    • misinterpretation of normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease
    • example- think that a headache is an indication of a brain tumor
dissociative disorders
Dissociative Disorders
  • Have you ever walked in your sleep?
  • Did you have imaginary playmates as a child?
  • Were you physically abused as a child?
  • Were you sexually abused as a child?
  • Have you ever noticed that things are missing from your personal possessions?
  • Have you ever noticed that things appear where you live, but you don’t know how?
dissociative disorders1
Dissociative Disorders
  • Do people ever talk to you as if they know you but you don’t’ know them?
  • Do you ever speak about yourself as “we” or “us”?
  • Do you ever feel that there is another person or persons inside you?
  • If there is another person inside you, does he or she ever come out and take control of your body?
dissociative disorders2
Dissociative Disorders
  • conscious awareness is separated from previous memories/thoughts/feelings
  • sudden loss of memory or change in identity
  • believed to be caused by severe, extended trauma
  • types:
    • amnesia
    • fugue
    • dissociative identity disorder
dissociative disorders3
Dissociative Disorders
  • amnesia
    • failure to recall past events or information
    • usually caused by extreme, intolerable stress
    • selectively forget painful or stressful information
  • fugue
    • in addition to amnesia, leave home and identity
    • very abrupt beginning and ending
    • duration varies
dissociative disorders4
Dissociative Disorders
  • dissociative identity disorder
    • formerly called multiple personality disorder
    • multiple, distinct personalities
    • result of severe trauma (physical, emotional, sexual)
    • may be a relationship to “role-playing”
mood disorders
Mood Disorders
  • emotional extremes (extremely high or low)
  • main types:
    • major depressive disorder
      • prolonged hopelessness, lack of energy, despair, or lack of interest in regular activities
    • bipolar disorder
      • alternate between being very high (mania) and very low (depression)
      • formerly called manic-depressive disorder
      • mania- wildly optimistic state
explaining mood disorders
Explaining mood disorders
  • psychoanalytic perspective
    • moods caused by associations to unconscious childhood impulses
  • biological perspective
    • genetic influence (may be inherited)
    • chemical imbalances in the brain
  • social-cultural perspective
    • moods are shaped and influenced by our surroundings
schizophrenia disorders
Schizophrenia Disorders
  • disorganized/deluded thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions/actions
  • often suffer from delusions (false beliefs) and hallucinations (sensory experience without any actual sensory stimulation)
  • believed to be caused by brain abnormalities, genetic predisposition, and psychological/environmental factors
personality disorders
Personality Disorders
  • inflexible and enduring patterns of behavior that impair regular social functioning
  • can coexist with other psychological disorders
  • examples:
    • antisocial
    • histrionic
    • narcissistic
    • borderline