童年論述經典研讀會. 童年、自然與文化 98 年 3 月 30 日 報告：楊麗中. Roni Natov Brooklyn College of the City University of New York. The Poetics of Childhood Routledge; 1st edition (2002 ). the poetics of childhood . I personal experience common experience II scope of poetics of childhood. Outline.
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98年 3月 30日
Brooklyn College of the City University of New York
The Poetics of Childhood
Routledge; 1st edition (2002 )
I personal experience
II scope of poetics of childhood
Two Versions of Pastoral
William Blake (1757-1827)
1. “Without Contraries is no progression.”
2. Children Lost and Found
3. “To See a World in a Grain of Sand”
1 “Without Contraries is no progression.”
1 Innocence is a fragile state, and only in art can it be captured metaphorically in moments.
2 Higher innocence can be glimpsed in visions. It takes shapes in the real world, and mostly in the figure of the child.
3.1 those who feel “unself-consciously untied with the world”
"I have no name;I am but two days old."What shall I call thee?"I happy am,Joy is my name."Sweet joy befall thee!
3.2 those who “unself-consciously prolong” that state
“The Little Black Boy
“The Chimney Sweeper”
4 The central concern of the two Songs seems not so much Innocence or Experience, “but the borderline between them” (11)
5 Blake’s visions of Innocence are representations of the unity of past and future, and of the connection between all things—the worldly glimpsed in visions of the heavenly, and vice versa.
“The Divine Image”
1 Experience was the fallen world.
The child became the creature furthest and freest from the fallen world, but within the child, Innocence battles with Experience toward some vision of release from its shackles.
2. Children Lost and Found
the primal fear of children
“The Little Boy Found”
“The Little Boy Lost”
a young girl’s vulnerability
“The Little Girl Found”
“The Little Girl Lost”
Acceptance of desire is essential to the state of higher Innocence.
“A Little Boy Lost”
“A Little Girl Lost”
3 “To see a World in a Grain of Sand”
1 sense of the unity of all things
2 He saw the many in the one, which represented the potential for higher Innocence in every element and every living thing.
frontipiece of Songs of Experience
frontipiece of Songs of Innocence
To see a World in a Grain of Sand 在一粒細沙中看到世界And a Heaven in a Wild Flower, 在一朵野花中看到天堂，Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand 在手掌中把握無限And Eternity in an hour. 在一小時中把握永恆。“Auguries of Innocence”
On Another’s Sorrow
1 The Natural Child
2 The Longing for Childhood
3 The Search for Consciousness
William Wordsworth (1770 – 1850)
Though nothing can bring back the hour Of splendor in the grass, of glory in the flower; We will grieve not, rather find Strength in what remains behind.
Central to this process is recollection, reflection, and meaning of the “spots of time” which point to “how,/The mind is lord and master—outward sense/The obedient servant of her will” (XII, ll 222-3).
The Child Poet
Opal Whiteley (1897-1992)
Opal Whiteley was the spiritual child of Blake and Wordsworth, attuned to the natural world and to her own nature.
To what extent is the literature of childhood related to the literary pastoral?
1 children’s sense of freedom
2 a retreat from the social world or injustices
3 a nostalgia for the past
2, 3 loss, and longing for a return to an earlier state, real or imagined; a critique of civilization (91)
the child serves as the green world
(a figure of escape and possibility, a guide that leads us into the garden, a figure that engages in a quest) (92)
forms of movement
( a retreat from and a return to the world, the retreat as a place of resolution itself; the retreat has occurred before the story opens) (91)
“Blake’s ironic use of the child’s voice in his lyrics is echoed in Carroll’s satiric mode. And Grahame was influenced by Wordsworth’s association of childhood with the pastoral imagery of nature and as the source of inspiration for creativity. (49)
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (1832 –1898)
“The predominant irony of Carroll’s work is close to Blake’s, when the child, in its innocence, speaks against itself, and takes the side of the very world that will expel it from what it envisions as paradise.” (55)
Kenneth Grahame (1859 –1932)
Cover of the first edition
“While Wind, like Alice stories, is propelled by what’s not resolvable in adulthood, here what remains haunting from childhood memory is grated respite in the liminal borders of childhood and its accompanying states of dream and trance.” (57)