Through the back door the role of qualitative surveys in change management
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Through the Back Door: The role of qualitative surveys in change management. Janet Tapper, MLS Western States Chiropractic College April 2007 Oregon Library Association. Learning Outcomes. Fresh look at change management Understand application of a qualitative survey in change process

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Through the back door the role of qualitative surveys in change management

Through the Back Door:The role of qualitative surveys in change management

Janet Tapper, MLS

Western States Chiropractic College

April 2007

Oregon Library Association


Learning outcomes

Learning Outcomes

  • Fresh look at change management

  • Understand application of a qualitative survey in change process

  • Best practices for interviewing within the context of a qualitative survey


Agenda

Agenda

  • The Challenge: Why Change is well…challenging

  • A Case Study

  • Lessons Learned

  • The Value of Qualitative Data

  • and how to Gather it


Through the back door the role of qualitative surveys in change management

Lewin’s Change Model

Unfreeze

Change

Refreeze

Decrease strength of old values, attitudes, behaviors—disconfirming data

Institutionalize and stabilize—reinforce the change through new norms and operating procedures

Facilitation and training to minimize resistance


Through the back door the role of qualitative surveys in change management

All Other

Obstacles

14%

Employees

Resistant to

Change

39%

Inadequate

Budget

14%

Management Behaviors

Not Supportive 33%

Resistance to Change

Over 70% of change resistance is human factors


Why do we dislike change

Why Do We Dislike Change?

  • Paired Activity (5 minutes)

  • Turn to the person next to you and discuss: Why do we dislike change?


Why do we dislike change1

Why Do We Dislike Change?

For Very Good Reasons:

We are reluctant to move to an unknown or hazy future

We are losing something

We have no involvement with our own destiny

Change is difficult--people need a good reason to change


Appreciative change model

Novelty

Community Values

Continuity

Transition

Appreciative Change Model

(Based on the Appreciative Inquiry work of David Cooperrider)


Libraries are uniquely poised to be change agents

Libraries are uniquely poised to be change agents

  • We are at the vortex of academic values

  • Libraries often are ahead of the campus technological curve

  • Often our archives literally hold the institutional memory

  • Libraries are filled with librarians 


Agenda1

Agenda

  • The Challenge: Why Change is Challenging

  • A Case Study

  • Lessons Learned

  • The Value of Qualitative Data

  • and how to Gather it


Case study western states chiropractic college

Case Study: Western States Chiropractic College

  • Early Summer 2005:

  • A handful of faculty members seize an opportunity to apply for an NIH grant.

  • The grant is awarded and implementation must begin immediately.

  • Library is brought onto committees for expertise in information literacy.


Grant implementation strategic plan

Grant implementation strategic plan

  • Roadmap consists of four key areas:

Curriculum

Development

Faculty Training

Protocol Development

Program Evaluation


Challenges

Challenges

  • Faculty comfortable with status quo

  • What exactly is the faculty attitudes and parameters of general knowledge regarding evidence-based healthcare resources

  • Negative Buzz

  • Needed to gage the comfort the faculty had with using electronic information finding tools

  • We didn’t really know how far down the evidence-based path the faculty already was

  • What classroom activities are already in the curriculum that teach evidence-based competencies


I volunteered to do a qualitative survey

I volunteered to do a qualitative survey:

  • Three fundamental purposes:

  • The NIH grant committee, needed to assess the wide scope of factors

  • We wanted to develop a broader base of stakeholders in the new curriculum goals.

  • Opportunity to introduce myself to faculty


Process

Process

  • Setting up the process:

  • Emails sent to entire faculty asking them to set up appointments with library at their convenience.

  • Interviews to take no more than 20 minutes.

  • Each interview would happen in my office.

  • Interview protocol:

  • Introduced myself and the purpose of the interviews.

  • Initially I taped the interviews.

  • Standardized set of questions.

  • Left plenty of time for me to answer their questions.

  • Recorded general impressions of the interview after they left.


Analyzing and releasing the data

Analyzing and Releasing the Data

Qualitative Survey Data and Results

Quantitative Analysis

Qualitative analysis

Stakeholder interaction

Shared vision of Change

  • Data driven methodology reduces emotional response to change

  • Community participation creates sense of empowerment to reduce feeling of helplessness

  • Survey forces community to begin processing in advance of the change

  • Objective tools established to evaluate impact and success.


Agenda2

Agenda

  • The Challenge: Why Change is Challenging

  • A Case Study

  • Lessons Learned

  • The Value of Qualitative Data

  • and how to Gather it


Lessons learned what worked

Lessons Learned : What Worked

  • Identified areas of concern

  • Uncovered assumptions

  • Added a human face to the NIH Grant process

  • It really was a great opportunity to introduce myself and update faculty on library assets

  • Data moved discussion forward


Lessons learned what i d do differently

Lessons Learned: What I’d Do Differently

  • Would not try to tape any of the sessions

  • Would do more phone or in person confirmations of appointments

  • Release results sooner

  • Line up help sooner than later


The benefits

The Benefits

  • We were able to answer our questions about:

    • What is already in the curriculum

    • Comfort level with WSCC electronic environment

    • Perceived understanding of EBP practices

  • Able to look at the data from different perspectives

  • Training decisions are being informed by the needs of the faculty

  • Knowing their concerns were being factored allowed faculty to relax and many became enthused stakeholders

In a matter of weeks able to get clear description of the Present and an understanding of what the concerns might be about the Future.


Current status

Current Status

  • Faculty engaged enhancing skill sets

  • All faculty have taken a Moodle course on finding healthcare evidence

  • All faculty are participating in a 10 week program of extensive training on the evaluation of primary studies co-authored by WSCC and OHSU

  • Generalized belief that EBP supports faculty value of academic excellence and does not diminish chiropractic philosophy.


Where the survey fits in

Academic Excellence

Sharing survey

results

Evidence-based

curriculum changes

Qualitative

Survey

Faculty Training

Where the survey fits in….

  • Appreciative Change for WSCC

Focus onChiropractic

Philosophy and Science


Agenda3

Agenda

  • The Challenge: Why Change is Challenging

  • A Case Study

  • Lessons Learned

  • The Value of Qualitative Data

  • and how to Gather it


Research

Research

  • Real research is often confusing, messy, intensely frustrating, and fundamentally nonlinear

Marshall,C. and Rossman, G. (1989) Designing Qualitative Research. Sage. Newberry Park, California


What kind of data

What Kind of Data?

  • Qualitative!

Quantitative!


Research comparison quantitative

Research Comparison: Quantitative


Research comparison qualitative

Research Comparison: Qualitative


Why use qualitative studies

Why Use Qualitative Studies?

  • Research that cannot be done experimentally

  • In depth explorations of complexities and processes

  • Relevant variables have yet to be identified

  • Where and why policy, folk wisdom and practice do not work

  • Unknown societies or innovative systems

  • Informal and unstructured linkages and processes in organizations

  • Real, as opposed to stated, organizational goals

    • Marshall,C. and Rossman, G. (1989) Designing Qualitative Research. Sage. Newberry Park, California


How to design the study

How to Design the study

  • Site and sample selection

  • Researcher’s role management

  • Data collection technique

    • Observational

    • In-depth interviewing-conversation with a purpose

      • Useful to get large amounts of data quickly

      • Variety of subjects

      • Allows for immediate clarification

      • Must involve personal interaction and requires cooperation

  • Managing and recording data

  • Data analysis strategies

  • Management plan, time line, feasibility analysis


Principles for interviews

Principles for Interviews*

  • An Interview is an intervention

    • Be clear about topic and purpose

  • Design a protocol

    • Allows comparison of data across subjects

    • Ensures you’ll cover what you want to cover

  • Establish Rapport

    • How will the data will be used

    • Confidentiality--if it’s true

    • Offer to report back

  • Good questions

    • Open Ended

    • Contains some element of positive and negative

    • Always ask “Anything else?”

  • *Maggie Kolkena, MSOD, Third Thought Consulting


More principles

More Principles

  • Presenting the Data

    • Verbatim-

      • conversion to measurable results

    • Themes-

      • trends that appear

  • Follow Up

    • USE the data

    • Thank the Participants

    • Report back as agreed

  • Follow-up creates momentum and next steps


Qualitative data can

Never losing core values

Future

Getting from here to there

Present

Qualitative Data Can…

Illuminate the change process and create momentum for transition

Provides an honest look at the present

Creates a desired description of the future


Resources

Resources

  • Fetterman, D. (1998). Ethnography, step by step. 2nd ed. Sage Publications. Thousand Oaks.

  • Hammersly, M. and Atkinson, P. (1995). Ethnography, principles and practice. 2nd ed. Tavistock Publications. London.

  • Marshall, C. and Rossman, G. (1989). Designing qualitative research. Sage Publications. Thousand Oaks.

  • Abels, E., Griner, L, and Turqman, M. "If You Build It Will They Come?"Information Outlook 8.10 (2004): 13-17.

  • Cooperrider, D. (2003). Appreciative Inquiry Handbook: The First in a Series of AI Workbooks for Leaders of Change.

  • Berrett-Koehler Publishers . New York.

  • 1998 Benchmarking Report on Best Practices in Managing Change

  • (1998)Pro Sci Report

  • www.thirdthought.com

  • http://appreciativeinquiry.case.edu

  • http://www.change-management.com/


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