Some Factors Affecting Education before the Civil War

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Some Factors Affecting Education before the Civil War

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1. Some Factors Affecting Education before the Civil War Whose contributions might you add to this figure under the heading “Influential Early Educators and their Ideas”? Whose contributions might you add to this figure under the heading “Influential Early Educators and their Ideas”?

2. Early Europeans and their Influences Government/clergy supports education. They have an investment in society so they should invest in education. Four levels of education include: nursery (0-6); elementary/national (6-12); Latin/gymnasium (13-18); Academy (19-24) Universal textbooks, schools, and language Lessons should be taught on the level of understanding of the students. Materials should be shown to students—not simply told. Considered learning to be accomplished through TRAINING…students not considered prepared to learn, but must be trained to learn. Government/clergy supports education. They have an investment in society so they should invest in education. Four levels of education include: nursery (0-6); elementary/national (6-12); Latin/gymnasium (13-18); Academy (19-24) Universal textbooks, schools, and language Lessons should be taught on the level of understanding of the students. Materials should be shown to students—not simply told. Considered learning to be accomplished through TRAINING…students not considered prepared to learn, but must be trained to learn.

3. Age of Enlightenment Tabula Rasa=at birth the mind is a blank slate Students learn by using their five senses while interacting with their environment Teachers should teach to students individual talents and interests. Teachers should encourage natural curiosity of children as motivation to learning Teachers should teach by example Reason is a supreme virtue People are inherently good and therefore when taught with open minds and not by coercion, children will grow intellectually. Tabula Rasa=at birth the mind is a blank slate Students learn by using their five senses while interacting with their environment Teachers should teach to students individual talents and interests. Teachers should encourage natural curiosity of children as motivation to learning Teachers should teach by example Reason is a supreme virtue People are inherently good and therefore when taught with open minds and not by coercion, children will grow intellectually.

4. Age of Enlightenment Experiences should match natural conditions of growth…brain capability age appropriate Obstacles that may impede development should be removed… Abstract thought process developed during adolescence, that is when such concepts should be introduced. Practical skills taught because they may be useful later in life.Experiences should match natural conditions of growth…brain capability age appropriate Obstacles that may impede development should be removed… Abstract thought process developed during adolescence, that is when such concepts should be introduced. Practical skills taught because they may be useful later in life.

5. Age of Enlightenment Tested Rouseau’s ideas Student learning and exploration should not be stifled by rote memorization…students are not sheep. Experiences provided should appeal to all senses—not just verbal, and should be appropriate to developmental age of child Tested Rouseau’s ideas Student learning and exploration should not be stifled by rote memorization…students are not sheep. Experiences provided should appeal to all senses—not just verbal, and should be appropriate to developmental age of child

6. Age of Enlightenment Teachers need to recognize and respect student individuality Teachers responsible for helping develop moral strength of character Steps of instruction: 1) clearness (understanding of content); 2) association (connecting new ideas with previously learned content; 3) system ( analysis of new ideas and their relations to the purpose of the lesson); 4) method (applying new knowledge to future problems).Teachers need to recognize and respect student individuality Teachers responsible for helping develop moral strength of character Steps of instruction: 1) clearness (understanding of content); 2) association (connecting new ideas with previously learned content; 3) system ( analysis of new ideas and their relations to the purpose of the lesson); 4) method (applying new knowledge to future problems).

7. Age of Enlightenment Children learn mostly through play---gardening to show nurturing and growth. All necessary attributes for learning. Children not to be molded..rather they grow needing time and space just like in the natural world.Children learn mostly through play---gardening to show nurturing and growth. All necessary attributes for learning. Children not to be molded..rather they grow needing time and space just like in the natural world.

8. Informal Education in Pre-Civil War America Southern Colonies Mid-Atlantic Colonies New England Colonies

9. Southern Colonies Plantation life Tutor for landowner’s children Formal instruction Reading, writing, mathematics

10. Mid-Atlantic Colonies Diverse cultures Diverse religious orientation Preserve languages and beliefs Parochial schools—non-discriminatory Religion, mathematics, reading, writing

11. New England Colonies Town schools Massachusetts Acts of 1642 and 1647 Strong religious influence

12. The Role of Religion in Early America The Southern Protestants The Mid-Atlantic Christians The New England Puritans

13. Southern Protestants Believed scriptures were key Education meant to help save souls Taught the Bible

14. The Mid-Atlantic Christians Diverse religious backgrounds Focus on religious beliefs Learning based on religious beliefs

15. The New-England Puritans Schools based on beliefs of Calvin Produce resistance to temptation Training, discipline, religious commitment

16. Educational differences among different groups Slaves Native Americans Spanish-American Colonists Women Disabled

17. Education for Slaves—5% South Taught by clergy Self-taught North Taught in schools Taught by clergy Self-taught

18. Native Americans Assimilation Familial responsibility Mission schools

19. Spanish-American Colonists Catholic missions Males Upper-class women Political reasons

20. Women Taught so they could teach Gender specific subjects In the home/informal Wealthy received higher levels of learning

21. Disabled Physically Confined Forgotten Mentally Institutionalized (1854) Ignored

22. Formal Education Pre-Civil War Curricula Success and Failure Types of Schools

23. Curricula Based on Bible Practical math skills ( money) Alphabet Varied books (ex: hornbook, primers, almanacs, spellers, dictionaries, McGuffey Readers)

24. Success and Failure Acquired adequate knowledge Learned values Reinforced racism Penalized poor

25. Types of Schools Monitorial system Lyceum Latin grammar school English academy Common schools Parochial schools Institutions of Higher Education Academies for girls (private seminaries)

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