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Pathways to Scientific Teaching. Diane Ebert-May Department of Plant Biology Michigan State University [email protected] http://first2.org. Team at MSU. Rett Weber - Plant Biology (postdoctoral researcher) Deb Linton - Plant Biology (Tri-C, Ohio) Duncan Sibley - Geology

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Pathways to scientific teaching
Pathways to Scientific Teaching

  • Diane Ebert-May

  • Department of Plant Biology

  • Michigan State University

  • [email protected]

  • http://first2.org


Team at msu
Team at MSU

  • Rett Weber - Plant Biology (postdoctoral researcher)

  • Deb Linton - Plant Biology (Tri-C, Ohio)

  • Duncan Sibley - Geology

  • Doug Luckie - Physiology

  • Scott Harrison - Microbiology (graduate student)

  • Tammy Long - Plant Biology

  • Heejun Lim - Chemistry Education

  • Rob Pennock - Philosophy

  • Charles Ofria - Engineering

  • Rich Lenski - Microbiolgy

  • Janet Batzli - Plant Biology [U of Wisconsin]



Engage
Engage used to be.


Question 1
Question 1 used to be.

Please respond on a scale of 1-5: 1=strongly agree; 2=agree; 3=neutral; 4= disagree; 5=strongly disagree

  • Scientific teaching involves active learning strategies to engage students in the process of science.


Question 2
Question 2 used to be.

Please respond on a scale of 1-5:

1=strongly agree; 2=agree; 3=neutral; 4= disagree; 5=strongly disagree

  • Students learn science best by doing science.


Question 3
Question 3 used to be.

Please respond on a scale of 0-100

in increments of 10:

  • How important is it to use multiple kinds of data to assess student learning?


Question 4
Question 4 used to be.

Please respond on a scale of 0-100

in increments of 10:

  • How often do you use multiple kinds of data to make instructional decisions?


Question 5
Question 5 used to be.

Please respond on a scale of 1-5: 1=strongly agree; 2=agree; 3=neutral; 4= disagree; 5=strongly disagree

  • In my department, excellence in teaching is rewarded at a level comparable to excellence in research.


Question 11
Question 1 used to be.

Please respond on a scale of 1-5:

1=strongly agree; 2=agree; 3=neutral; 4= disagree; 5=strongly disagree

  • Scientific teaching involves active learning strategies to engage students in the process of science.


Question 21
Question 2 used to be.

Please respond on a scale of 1-5:

1=strongly agree; 2=agree; 3=neutral; 4= disagree; 5=strongly disagree

  • Students learn science best by doing science.


Large class meeting
Large Class Meeting used to be.


Question 31
Question 3 used to be.

Please respond on a scale of 0-100

in increments of 10:

  • How important is it to use multiple kinds of data to assess student learning?


Question 41
Question 4 used to be.

Please respond on a scale of 0-100

in increments of 10:

  • How often do you use multiple kinds of data to make instructional decisions?


How People Learn used to be.

Bransford et al 1999, 2004


Question 51
Question 5 used to be.

Please respond on a scale of 1-5:

1=strongly agree; 2=agree; 3=neutral; 4= disagree; 5=strongly disagree

  • In my department, excellence in teaching is rewarded at a level comparable to excellence in research.



Explore
Explore used to be.


Working Backwards used to be.

Identify desired goals/objectives

Determine acceptable evidence

Design learning experiences and instruction

Wiggins and McTighe 1998


Assessment Gradient used to be.

low Potential for Assessment of Learning high

Multiple Choice … … Concept Maps … … Essay … … Interview

high Ease of Assessment low

Theoretical Framework

• Ausubel 1968; meaningful learning

• Novak 1998; visual representations

• King and Kitchner 1994; reflective judgment

• National Research Council 1999; theoretical frameworks

for assessment


What is assessment
What is assessment? used to be.

  • Data collection with the purpose of answering questions about…

  • students’ understanding

  • students’ attitudes

  • students’ skills

  • instructional design and implementation

  • curricular reform (at multiple grainsizes)


Learning objectives
Learning objectives used to be.

  • Once you have a set of learning goals….

  • assign a Bloom-level to each goal.

  • Statement that indicates level of expectation of performance


What level of learning used to be.

do we ask of our students?

Bloom (1956)

Cognitive Domain of Educational Objectives

6 categories -

Knowledge

Comprehension

Application

Analysis

Synthesis

Evaluation


Department of Plant Biology used to be.

Mean Bloom Level

Course Level


Department of Plant Biology used to be.

Bloom Level

% Total Qs

Course Level

*N items


Explore more
Explore more... used to be.


Individually used to be.

[on your carbonless paper]

  • Draw a visual model that shows the relationship between two terms:

    • Teaching

    • Research


Guidelines for planning research

How do instructors move from assessment to designing research on learning?

Guidelines for Planning Research


Ask questions
Ask Questions research on learning?

  • What did the assessment data suggest about student understanding?

  • Why didn’t students understand critical concepts?

  • What has been done already about students’ understanding of these concepts?


Investigator s purpose
Investigator’s Purpose research on learning?

  • Improve own classroom instruction - action research?

  • Scientific research?


Design study collect data
Design Study research on learning?Collect Data

  • How and why will you select the research methods?

  • What kinds of data will you collect? Direct or Self-Report?

  • How will you analyze the data?


Research designs
Research Designs research on learning?


Data collection
Data research on learning?Collection


Analyze data
Analyze Data research on learning?

  • How will you analyze the data?

  • How could the results influence instruction?


Data analysis
Data Analysis research on learning?

  • Quantitative data - statistical analysis

  • Qualitative data

    • break into manageable units and define coding categories

    • search for patterns, quantify

    • interpret and synthesize

  • Valid and repeatable measures


Report the study
Report the Study research on learning?

  • Ideas and results are peer reviewed - formally and/or informally.

  • Science journals


Explain
Explain research on learning?


Assessment tools
Assessment Tools research on learning?

Detect Learning

.....or not


What s a tool used to test student s attitudes

2 research on learning?

What’s a tool used to test student’s attitudes?

1. Self-Efficacy

2.VASS (Views)


What s a tool used to test knowledge

2 research on learning?

What’s a tool used to test knowledge?

1. Exam

2. Writing

3. PBA

4. Concept Inventory


The most common tool used is

2 research on learning?

The most common tool used is?


  • What is the relationship among DNA, a gene, and a chromosome?

  • a. A chromosome contains hundreds of genes which are composed of DNA.

  • b. DNA contains hundreds of genes which are composed of chromosomes.

  • c. A gene contains hundreds of chromosomes which are composed of DNA.



  • What is the relationship among DNA, a gene, and a chromosome?

  • a. A chromosome contains hundreds of genes which are composed of DNA.

  • b. DNA contains hundreds of genes which are composed of chromosomes.

  • c. A gene contains hundreds of chromosomes which are composed of DNA.



are by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3'

represent

display

Concepts

Knowledge or Understanding

Visual Diagrams

Or Models

connected

with

has

has

Structure

Hierarchy

Used for

is constructed

with

Linking Words

Assessment

Organization

Context

promotes

Prior

Knowledge

New

Information

Reflection &

Learning

Concept Maps


www.ctools.msu.edu by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3'


Student’s Concept Map by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3'


  • Joseph Novak by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3' , in Learning, Creating and Using Knowledge: Concept Maps as Facilitative Tools in Schools and Corporations 1998

  • “Meaningful learning results when the learner chooses to relate new information to ideas the learner already knows. Rote learning occurs when the learner memorizes new information without relating to prior knowledge.”


Models
Models by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3'

  • Connections

  • Organization

  • Visual

  • Reasoning


Can crop transgenes be kept on a leash? by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3'

Marvier and Van Acker (2005)

  • Movement of transgenes beyond their intended destination - certainty.

  • Unlikely that transgenes can be retracted once they escape.

  • Human error, risk management issues.

  • Humans and ecosystems at risk from traits that escape?


Turn to your neighbor
Turn to your neighbor... by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3'

  • What questions would you ask to check students knowledge and comprehension after they read the paper?


Knowledge and comprehension qs
Knowledge and Comprehension Qs by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3'

  • What is a gene? A transgene?

  • What is a trait?

  • How does an allele differ from a mutation? A transgene?

  • How can the genotype of an organism influence the phenotype?

  • How does sexual reproduction occur in plants?


Box Model by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3'


Evolution and natural selection
Evolution and Natural Selection by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3'

How does active learning affect students’ understanding of evolution and natural selection over time?


Objective (outcome) by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3'

Students will demonstrate understanding of evolution by natural selection.


Alternative conceptions natural selection

by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3' Changes in a population occur through a gradual change in individual members of a population.

•New traits in species are developed in response to need.

•All members of a population are genetically equivalent, variation and fitness are not considered.

•Traits acquired during an individual’s lifetime will be inherited by offspring.

Alternative Conceptions: Natural Selection


Pre-test: Essay by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3'

Explain the changes that occurred in the tree and animal. Use your current understanding of evolution by natural selection.

(AAAS 1999)


Modified problem: populations of trees and animals by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3'


CINS Multiple Choice by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3'

In guppy populations, what are the primary changes that occur gradually over time?

  • The traits of each individual guppy within a population gradually change.

  • The proportions of guppies having different traits within a population change.

  • Successful behaviors learned by certain guppies are passed on to offspring.

  • Mutations occur to meet the needs of the guppies as the environment changes.

  • Concept Inventory of Natural Selection. Anderson et al. 2004


Active Learning by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3'

  • Day 13 in class:

    • Pretest: CINS multiple choice and dino essay

    • Artificial selection in dogs

      • Groups discuss and record: Why are dogs only one species?

      • Groups discuss and record: Breed a larger dog.

    • Assign concept map 4 - homework


Concept Map 4 by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3'

  • Individual AssignmentMake a new concept map demonstrating your understanding of natural selection using the following concepts. genetic variation evolution species population natural selection artificial selection selective agent


Active Learning by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3'

  • Day 14 in class

    • Artificial selection in plants

      • Group discuss and record: What traits were selected and why?

      • Clicker Q: Plant fitness

    • Natural selection

      • Clicker Q: Selection on beak size

      • Group discuss and record: What traits were naturally selected in Hawaiian finches?

      • Minute paper: Natural and artificial selection

    • Assign homework: Guppy sexual selection


Homework: Guppy Sexual Selection by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3'

  • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/sex/guppy/ed_pop.html


Active Learning by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3'

  • Day 15

  • In class: groups

    • Determine fitness of wild tobacco

    • Sexual selection

      • review guppy homework

    • Assign homework: concept map 5


Concept Map 5 by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3'

  • Individual AssignmentAdd the following terms to concept map 4.biotic factorsabiotic factorsfitnesstraitmutationreproductionmeiosisallele frequencyvariationselection pressureadaptation


Assessments by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3'

  • 2nd midterm exam

    • CINS multiple choice on natural selection

  • Final exam

    • CINS multiple choice on natural selection

    • Dinosaur post test


Assessments 2005 by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3'

Pre MC - Pre Essay

Pre MC - Post 1 MC

Pre MC - Post 2 MC

Pre Essay - Post 1 MC

Pre Essay - Post Essay

0.35

0.54

0.25

0.33

0.53

Cmap 4 - Cmap 5

Cmap 4 - Post 2 MC

Post 1 MC - Post 2 MC

Post 1 MC - Post 2 MC

0.60

0.38

0.38

0.29

Correlations (p<0.05)

C-map 5

Post 1

MC

C-map 4

Post 2

MC

Pre

MC

Mean Percent Correct

Post

Essay

Clicker MC

Pre

Essay

day

day

Days of Instruction

Active Learning

N= 49-117


Do faculty change
Do Faculty Change? by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3'


Do students learn better
Do Students Learn Better? by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3'


Has student learning responded to professional development
Has student learning responded to professional development? by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3'

From T. Derting (NSF CCLI Final Report)


Has student learning responded to professional development1
Has student learning responded to professional development? by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3'

From Derting (NSF Final Report)


Research by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3'

Teaching

Is it scientific?


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