Pathways to scientific teaching
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Pathways to Scientific Teaching. Diane Ebert-May Department of Plant Biology Michigan State University [email protected] http://first2.org. Team at MSU. Rett Weber - Plant Biology (postdoctoral researcher) Deb Linton - Plant Biology (Tri-C, Ohio) Duncan Sibley - Geology

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Pathways to scientific teaching

Pathways to Scientific Teaching

  • Diane Ebert-May

  • Department of Plant Biology

  • Michigan State University

  • [email protected]

  • http://first2.org


Team at msu

Team at MSU

  • Rett Weber - Plant Biology (postdoctoral researcher)

  • Deb Linton - Plant Biology (Tri-C, Ohio)

  • Duncan Sibley - Geology

  • Doug Luckie - Physiology

  • Scott Harrison - Microbiology (graduate student)

  • Tammy Long - Plant Biology

  • Heejun Lim - Chemistry Education

  • Rob Pennock - Philosophy

  • Charles Ofria - Engineering

  • Rich Lenski - Microbiolgy

  • Janet Batzli - Plant Biology [U of Wisconsin]


Pathways to scientific teaching

  • The trouble with our times is that the future is not what it used to be.

  • -Paul Valery, The Art of Poetry


Engage

Engage


Question 1

Question 1

Please respond on a scale of 1-5: 1=strongly agree; 2=agree; 3=neutral; 4= disagree; 5=strongly disagree

  • Scientific teaching involves active learning strategies to engage students in the process of science.


Question 2

Question 2

Please respond on a scale of 1-5:

1=strongly agree; 2=agree; 3=neutral; 4= disagree; 5=strongly disagree

  • Students learn science best by doing science.


Question 3

Question 3

Please respond on a scale of 0-100

in increments of 10:

  • How important is it to use multiple kinds of data to assess student learning?


Question 4

Question 4

Please respond on a scale of 0-100

in increments of 10:

  • How often do you use multiple kinds of data to make instructional decisions?


Question 5

Question 5

Please respond on a scale of 1-5: 1=strongly agree; 2=agree; 3=neutral; 4= disagree; 5=strongly disagree

  • In my department, excellence in teaching is rewarded at a level comparable to excellence in research.


Question 11

Question 1

Please respond on a scale of 1-5:

1=strongly agree; 2=agree; 3=neutral; 4= disagree; 5=strongly disagree

  • Scientific teaching involves active learning strategies to engage students in the process of science.


Question 21

Question 2

Please respond on a scale of 1-5:

1=strongly agree; 2=agree; 3=neutral; 4= disagree; 5=strongly disagree

  • Students learn science best by doing science.


Large class meeting

Large Class Meeting


Question 31

Question 3

Please respond on a scale of 0-100

in increments of 10:

  • How important is it to use multiple kinds of data to assess student learning?


Question 41

Question 4

Please respond on a scale of 0-100

in increments of 10:

  • How often do you use multiple kinds of data to make instructional decisions?


Pathways to scientific teaching

How People Learn

Bransford et al 1999, 2004


Question 51

Question 5

Please respond on a scale of 1-5:

1=strongly agree; 2=agree; 3=neutral; 4= disagree; 5=strongly disagree

  • In my department, excellence in teaching is rewarded at a level comparable to excellence in research.


Articles derived from journal papers

Articles derived from journal papers


Explore

Explore


Pathways to scientific teaching

Working Backwards

Identify desired goals/objectives

Determine acceptable evidence

Design learning experiences and instruction

Wiggins and McTighe 1998


Pathways to scientific teaching

Assessment Gradient

low Potential for Assessment of Learning high

Multiple Choice … … Concept Maps … … Essay … … Interview

high Ease of Assessment low

Theoretical Framework

• Ausubel 1968; meaningful learning

• Novak 1998; visual representations

• King and Kitchner 1994; reflective judgment

• National Research Council 1999; theoretical frameworks

for assessment


What is assessment

What is assessment?

  • Data collection with the purpose of answering questions about…

  • students’ understanding

  • students’ attitudes

  • students’ skills

  • instructional design and implementation

  • curricular reform (at multiple grainsizes)


Learning objectives

Learning objectives

  • Once you have a set of learning goals….

  • assign a Bloom-level to each goal.

  • Statement that indicates level of expectation of performance


Pathways to scientific teaching

What level of learning

do we ask of our students?

Bloom (1956)

Cognitive Domain of Educational Objectives

6 categories -

Knowledge

Comprehension

Application

Analysis

Synthesis

Evaluation


Pathways to scientific teaching

Department of Plant Biology

Mean Bloom Level

Course Level


Pathways to scientific teaching

Department of Plant Biology

Bloom Level

% Total Qs

Course Level

*N items


Explore more

Explore more...


Pathways to scientific teaching

Individually

[on your carbonless paper]

  • Draw a visual model that shows the relationship between two terms:

    • Teaching

    • Research


Guidelines for planning research

How do instructors move from assessment to designing research on learning?

Guidelines for Planning Research


Ask questions

Ask Questions

  • What did the assessment data suggest about student understanding?

  • Why didn’t students understand critical concepts?

  • What has been done already about students’ understanding of these concepts?


Investigator s purpose

Investigator’s Purpose

  • Improve own classroom instruction - action research?

  • Scientific research?


Design study collect data

Design Study Collect Data

  • How and why will you select the research methods?

  • What kinds of data will you collect? Direct or Self-Report?

  • How will you analyze the data?


Research designs

Research Designs


Data collection

DataCollection


Analyze data

Analyze Data

  • How will you analyze the data?

  • How could the results influence instruction?


Data analysis

Data Analysis

  • Quantitative data - statistical analysis

  • Qualitative data

    • break into manageable units and define coding categories

    • search for patterns, quantify

    • interpret and synthesize

  • Valid and repeatable measures


Report the study

Report the Study

  • Ideas and results are peer reviewed - formally and/or informally.

  • Science journals


Explain

Explain


Assessment tools

Assessment Tools

Detect Learning

.....or not


What s a tool used to test student s attitudes

2

What’s a tool used to test student’s attitudes?

1. Self-Efficacy

2.VASS (Views)


What s a tool used to test knowledge

2

What’s a tool used to test knowledge?

1. Exam

2. Writing

3. PBA

4. Concept Inventory


The most common tool used is

2

The most common tool used is?


Pathways to scientific teaching

  • What is the relationship among DNA, a gene, and a chromosome?

  • a. A chromosome contains hundreds of genes which are composed of DNA.

  • b. DNA contains hundreds of genes which are composed of chromosomes.

  • c. A gene contains hundreds of chromosomes which are composed of DNA.


Pathways to scientific teaching

  • An mRNA molecule with the following sequence is being read by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3' What was the original 'antisense' DNA sequence that encoded this?

    • a. 5' CCG-ACG-UGC 3'b. 5' CCG-ACG-TGC 3'c. 5' GGC-TGC-ACG 3'd. 5' CCA-CGT-CGG 3'


Pathways to scientific teaching

  • What is the relationship among DNA, a gene, and a chromosome?

  • a. A chromosome contains hundreds of genes which are composed of DNA.

  • b. DNA contains hundreds of genes which are composed of chromosomes.

  • c. A gene contains hundreds of chromosomes which are composed of DNA.


Pathways to scientific teaching

  • An mRNA molecule with the following sequence is being read by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG -UGC 3' What was the original 'antisense' DNA sequence that encoded this?

    • a. 5' CCG-ACG-UGC 3'b. 5' CCG-ACG-TGC 3'c. 5' GGC-TGC-ACG 3'd. 5' CCA-CGT-CGG 3'


Pathways to scientific teaching

are

represent

display

Concepts

Knowledge or Understanding

Visual Diagrams

Or Models

connected

with

has

has

Structure

Hierarchy

Used for

is constructed

with

Linking Words

Assessment

Organization

Context

promotes

Prior

Knowledge

New

Information

Reflection &

Learning

Concept Maps


Pathways to scientific teaching

www.ctools.msu.edu


Pathways to scientific teaching

Student’s Concept Map


Pathways to scientific teaching

  • Joseph Novak, in Learning, Creating and Using Knowledge: Concept Maps as Facilitative Tools in Schools and Corporations 1998

  • “Meaningful learning results when the learner chooses to relate new information to ideas the learner already knows. Rote learning occurs when the learner memorizes new information without relating to prior knowledge.”


Models

Models

  • Connections

  • Organization

  • Visual

  • Reasoning


Pathways to scientific teaching

Can crop transgenes be kept on a leash?

Marvier and Van Acker (2005)

  • Movement of transgenes beyond their intended destination - certainty.

  • Unlikely that transgenes can be retracted once they escape.

  • Human error, risk management issues.

  • Humans and ecosystems at risk from traits that escape?


Turn to your neighbor

Turn to your neighbor...

  • What questions would you ask to check students knowledge and comprehension after they read the paper?


Knowledge and comprehension qs

Knowledge and Comprehension Qs

  • What is a gene? A transgene?

  • What is a trait?

  • How does an allele differ from a mutation? A transgene?

  • How can the genotype of an organism influence the phenotype?

  • How does sexual reproduction occur in plants?


Pathways to scientific teaching

Box Model


Evolution and natural selection

Evolution and Natural Selection

How does active learning affect students’ understanding of evolution and natural selection over time?


Pathways to scientific teaching

Objective (outcome)

Students will demonstrate understanding of evolution by natural selection.


Alternative conceptions natural selection

•Changes in a population occur through a gradual change in individual members of a population.

•New traits in species are developed in response to need.

•All members of a population are genetically equivalent, variation and fitness are not considered.

•Traits acquired during an individual’s lifetime will be inherited by offspring.

Alternative Conceptions: Natural Selection


Pathways to scientific teaching

Pre-test: Essay

Explain the changes that occurred in the tree and animal. Use your current understanding of evolution by natural selection.

(AAAS 1999)


Pathways to scientific teaching

Modified problem: populations of trees and animals


Pathways to scientific teaching

CINS Multiple Choice

In guppy populations, what are the primary changes that occur gradually over time?

  • The traits of each individual guppy within a population gradually change.

  • The proportions of guppies having different traits within a population change.

  • Successful behaviors learned by certain guppies are passed on to offspring.

  • Mutations occur to meet the needs of the guppies as the environment changes.

  • Concept Inventory of Natural Selection. Anderson et al. 2004


Pathways to scientific teaching

Active Learning

  • Day 13 in class:

    • Pretest: CINS multiple choice and dino essay

    • Artificial selection in dogs

      • Groups discuss and record: Why are dogs only one species?

      • Groups discuss and record: Breed a larger dog.

    • Assign concept map 4 - homework


Pathways to scientific teaching

Concept Map 4

  • Individual AssignmentMake a new concept map demonstrating your understanding of natural selection using the following concepts. genetic variation evolution species population natural selection artificial selection selective agent


Pathways to scientific teaching

Active Learning

  • Day 14 in class

    • Artificial selection in plants

      • Group discuss and record: What traits were selected and why?

      • Clicker Q: Plant fitness

    • Natural selection

      • Clicker Q: Selection on beak size

      • Group discuss and record: What traits were naturally selected in Hawaiian finches?

      • Minute paper: Natural and artificial selection

    • Assign homework: Guppy sexual selection


Pathways to scientific teaching

Homework: Guppy Sexual Selection

  • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/sex/guppy/ed_pop.html


Pathways to scientific teaching

Active Learning

  • Day 15

  • In class: groups

    • Determine fitness of wild tobacco

    • Sexual selection

      • review guppy homework

    • Assign homework: concept map 5


Pathways to scientific teaching

Concept Map 5

  • Individual AssignmentAdd the following terms to concept map 4.biotic factorsabiotic factorsfitnesstraitmutationreproductionmeiosisallele frequencyvariationselection pressureadaptation


Pathways to scientific teaching

Assessments

  • 2nd midterm exam

    • CINS multiple choice on natural selection

  • Final exam

    • CINS multiple choice on natural selection

    • Dinosaur post test


Pathways to scientific teaching

Assessments 2005

Pre MC - Pre Essay

Pre MC - Post 1 MC

Pre MC - Post 2 MC

Pre Essay - Post 1 MC

Pre Essay - Post Essay

0.35

0.54

0.25

0.33

0.53

Cmap 4 - Cmap 5

Cmap 4 - Post 2 MC

Post 1 MC - Post 2 MC

Post 1 MC - Post 2 MC

0.60

0.38

0.38

0.29

Correlations (p<0.05)

C-map 5

Post 1

MC

C-map 4

Post 2

MC

Pre

MC

Mean Percent Correct

Post

Essay

Clicker MC

Pre

Essay

day

day

Days of Instruction

Active Learning

N= 49-117


Do faculty change

Do Faculty Change?


Do students learn better

Do Students Learn Better?


Has student learning responded to professional development

Has student learning responded to professional development?

From T. Derting (NSF CCLI Final Report)


Has student learning responded to professional development1

Has student learning responded to professional development?

From Derting (NSF Final Report)


Pathways to scientific teaching

Research

Teaching

Is it scientific?


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