Alexander builds an empire
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Alexander Builds an Empire. Do Now. How di d the government of Athens change following the fall of the Thirty Tyrants? What caused the Greek city-states to become unstable?. The End of Greek Independence. Macedonia was an area north of the Greek city-states on the Balkan Peninsula.

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Alexander Builds an Empire

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Alexander builds an empire

Alexander Builds an Empire


Do now

Do Now

How did the government of Athens change following the fall of the Thirty Tyrants?

What caused the Greek city-states to become unstable?


The end of greek independence

The End of Greek Independence

Macedonia was an area north of the Greek city-states on the Balkan Peninsula.


The end of greek independence1

The End of Greek Independence

Philip of Macedonia ended the independence of the Greek city-states.


The end of greek independence2

The End of Greek Independence

In 338 B.C., Philip’s army fought Greek soldiers at the Battle of Chaeronea. The Macedonians were victorious, and King Philip claimed the Greek city-states.


The end of greek independence3

The End of Greek Independence

  • He formed the League of Corinth to put an end to the constant fighting between the city-states.


The end of greek independence4

The End of Greek Independence

  • Members of the league had to promise to support him and to agree to not fight any other member. All the major Greek city-states joined except Sparta.

Never!!


The end of greek independence5

The End of Greek Independence

  • King Philip then set out to gain control of Persia, but he was killed before he could complete his plan.


The end of greek independence6

The End of Greek Independence

His son Alexander, then 20 years old, rose to the throne in 336 B.C.


Alexander s teachers

Alexander’s Teachers

  • From Aristotle, Alexander learned Greek philosophy and science. From his father, he learned how to rule and how to wage war.


Aristotle and philip

Aristotle and Philip

Aristotle

Philip of Macedonia


The end of greek independence7

The End of Greek Independence

  • Legends say that Alexander slept with both a dagger and a copy of Homer’s Iliad under his pillow.


The end of greek independence8

The End of Greek Independence

  • He conquered Asia Minor, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, and parts of Greece and India. His empire stretched from Greece all the way to the Indus Valley in ancient India.


The end of greek independence9

The End of Greek Independence

  • He introduced the Greek language and spread Greek culture.


The end of greek independence10

The End of Greek Independence

  • By 325 B.C., he had completed one of the most successful military campaigns in history.

  • The leader would soon be known to the world as Alexander the Great.


The end of greek independence11

The End of Greek Independence

To rule many different peoples, Alexander adopted some of their customs and allowed them some degree of self-rule. This practice made people more willing to accept him as their new king.


The end of an empire

The End of an Empire

  • Alexander had defeated an Indian army that had more than 200 war elephants.


The end of an empire1

The End of an Empire

Alexander wanted to conquer more of India, however, his soldiers refused to go on.

.


The end of an empire2

The End of an Empire

  • They had followed Alexander for more than 11,000 miles and had fought for eight years.


The end of an empire3

The End of an Empire

  • Disappointed, Alexander turned around, marched home, and began planning new conquests.

  • He fell ill with a fever, however, and died shortly before his thirty-third birthday.


Alexander builds an empire

Note

  • A legend says that before Alexander died, he was asked to name a successor. Alexander answered that the rule of the empire should go “to the strongest!”


The end of an empire4

The End of an Empire

  • No one leader proved strong enough to hold Alexander’s empire together. After his death, his generals fought each other for control.


The end of an empire5

The End of an Empire

This conflict caused the empire to split into separate kingdoms. The three largest of these – Macedonia, Syria, and Egypt – often fought with one another.


The end of an empire6

The End of an Empire

  • Even though his empire had ended, Alexander’s influence lived on for nearly 300 years after his death.

  • Greek culture spread eastward and into Egypt. For this reason, this period of time is called the Hellenistic Age, or Greeklike Age.


Alexandria a center of learning

Alexandria: A Center of Learning

  • Alexandria, Egypt became the center of trade with Asia in goods as well as ideas.


Alexander builds an empire

Note

The lighthouse in Alexandria is one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.


Alexandria a center of learning1

Alexandria: A Center of Learning

  • It grew into a multicultural city, or city with many cultures.


Alexandria a center of learning2

Alexandria: A Center of Learning

  • The following thinkers contributed to this time period:


Euclid

Euclid

Did work in geometry, the study of points, lines, angles, surfaces, and solids. He is sometimes called the father of geometry.


Euclid1

Euclid


Eratosthenes

Eratosthenes

Used mathematics, including geometry, to estimate, quite closely, Earth’s diameter and circumference.


Hypatia

Hypatia

She was an Egyptian mathematician and philosopher who headed a school of philosophy in Alexandria. She developed many theories in mathematics and invented tools for measuring the properties of water.


Hypatia1

Hypatia


Alexander builds an empire

Tip

Remember: Hypatia had to stay hydrated!


Archimedes

Archimedes

Used mathematics to invent many machines, including water pumps. He also explained how pulleys and levers work.


Alexander builds an empire

Note

Archimedes is reported to have said, “Give me a lever long enough and I will move the world.”


Alexander builds an empire

Tip

*Remember the “M” in Archimedes = mathematics and machines


Aristarchus

Aristarchus

Used mathematics to discover that Earth rotates and moves in a path around the sun. He also tried to calculate the size of the sun and the moon.


Alexander builds an empire

Tip

Remember Aristarchus studied the stars


The hellenistic age

The Hellenistic Age

  • The spread of culture had an effect on architecture, politics, law, literature, philosophy, religion, and art.


The hellenistic age1

The Hellenistic Age

  • During his rule, Alexander founded new cities, using the model of Greek city-states. Many of these cities, and older ones as well, he named Alexandria, after himself.


The hellenistic age2

The Hellenistic Age

  • Over time, the city of Alexandria, Egypt stood out from the rest. It became a new center for culture and learning.


The hellenistic age3

The Hellenistic Age

  • The Romans borrowed from the religion, art, architecture, philosophy, literature, and language of the Greeks to build their own civilization in the region.


Wrap up

Wrap Up

Complete Homework and Practice Book Page 93


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