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INVERTEBRATES. I) Phylum: Porifera (sponges) A) Characteristics 1) asymmetrical bodies 2) 2 body layers 3) specialised cells i) but no tissues ii) won’t die if seperated from organism iii) porocyte, spicules, collar cells,amoebocyte 4) porous body

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I) Phylum: Porifera (sponges)

A) Characteristics

1) asymmetrical bodies

2) 2 body layers

3) specialised cells

i) but no tissues

ii) won’t die if seperated from organism

iii) porocyte, spicules, collar cells,amoebocyte

4) porous body

i) cells in direct contact with environment

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5) filter feeders

6) sessile as adults

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II) Phylum: Cnidaria

(hydra,jellyfish, sea anemones, corals)

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A) Characteristics

1) marine

2)radial symmetry

3)2 cell layers

4)simple nervous system (net-like)

a) tentacles with nematocysts

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6) 2 body forms

a) polyp: attached to surface, tentacles up or down

and/or

b) medusa: flat, mouth down,

moves (contractions or currents)

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III) worms: flatworms (Platyhelminthes)

round worms ( Nematoda)

segmented worms (Annelids)

A) characteristics (ex.planaria, tapeworm)

1) bilateral symmetry (definite head!)

2) acoelomate (no body cavity)

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B) characteristics (nematodes)

1) fluid-filled body cavity

2) one-way digestive system: ANUS!!!

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C) characteristics (segmented worms)

1) segmentation

a) division of body into sections

b) animals can increase in size by adding more identical segments

c) different segments can perform different functions

ex. earthworm

2) coelom (fluid filled body cavity)

a) room for complex internal organs

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IV) Phylum: Mollusca

A) characteristics

1) bilateral symmetry

2) 3 cell layers

3) coelom

4) 2 body openings

5) soft body, hard shell

a) mantle surrounds internal organs

and secretes calcium carbonate for shell

6) organ systems (circulatory, respiratory, excretory, reproductive, nervous)

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B) 3 main groups

1) gastropods (snails, slugs)

a) aquatic or terrestrial

b) carnivorous or decomposers

c) radula for feeding

d) muscular foot

e) sexual fertilisation

i)gametes may meet in water

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2) bivalves (clams, mussels)

a) 2 shells (hinged)

b) no cephalization

c) muscular foot

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3) cephalopods (squid, octopus)

a) large brain

b) grasp prey with arms,

beak tears apart

c)siphon for movement

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V) Phylum: Echinodermata

(ex. starfish, sea urchins, sand dollars,

sea cucumbers)

A) Characteristics

1) all marine

2) have coelom

3) have 1-way digestive system

4) most with radial symmetry

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5) no cephalization (head)

6) internal skeleton for protection

and support (endoskeleton)

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8) Sexual reproduction

a) eggs/sperm meet in water

b) also by regeneration in starfish

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VI) Phylum: Arthropoda

A) characteristics

1) exoskeleton

a) growth ….. Molting

b) prevents dehydration

2) jointed appendages

3) segmented bodies

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4) cephalization

a) highly developed nervous system

5) open circulatory system

a) dorsal heart pumps blood from posterior to anterior end

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B) 2 groups

1) Chelicerates

a) 2 body parts

i) cephalothorax

- head

- thorax (8 legs)

ii) abdomen

b) ex. arachnids, horsehoe crab, scorpions, ticks

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2) Mandibulata

a) have mandibles (jaws) for chewing

b) have antennae

c) >3 walking legs

d) 3 groups

i) crustaceans (copepods, barnacles, crab, lobster)

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ii) myriapods

(centipedes and millipedes)

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