Harm reduction, drug policy
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Harm reduction, drug policy and human rights 伤害控制、毒品和人权 Joanne Csete 乔安 夏塔 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Harm reduction, drug policy and human rights 伤害控制、毒品和人权 Joanne Csete 乔安 夏塔 Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network March 2007 加拿大艾滋病法律网络 2007 年 3 月. Overview 概述. International law on drug control 毒品控制方面的国际法 Human rights concerns related to drug policy and law 毒品政策与法律方面的人权关注

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Harm reduction, drug policy and human rights 伤害控制、毒品和人权 Joanne Csete 乔安 夏塔

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Harm reduction drug policy and human rights joanne csete

Harm reduction, drug policy

and human rights

伤害控制、毒品和人权

Joanne Csete 乔安 夏塔

Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network

March 2007

加拿大艾滋病法律网络 2007年3月


Overview

Overview 概述

  • International law on drug control

  • 毒品控制方面的国际法

  • Human rights concerns related to drug policy and law

    毒品政策与法律方面的人权关注

  • Harm reduction and human rights

    伤害控制与人权

  • Human rights-based approach to drug law and policy: Principles and examples from Canada

    基于人权的毒品政策与法律:加拿大的原则与实例


Drug control international law

Drug control: International law毒品控制:国际法

International drug conventions:毒品的国际公约

--Emphasis on law enforcement; governments must deal with trafficking as “serious offence” (nothing about quantities)

强调法律强制;政府需要严惩贩毒(没有数量的规定)

--States must adopt measures to make it a crime to possess or buy drugs for personal consumption.

国家必须采取措施将以个人消费为目的的毒品拥有与购买认定为犯罪

--States should provide treatment for addiction, services for reintegration and rehabilitation.

国家需要向上瘾者提供治疗,向复吸和复原者提供服务


Impact of drug policy and law

Impact of drug policy and law 毒品政策和法律的影响

Use of illicit drugs often treated as a problem of criminal law rather than public health.

违禁药物的使用通常被当作是刑法问题,而公共卫生问题次之

Many drug users are:一些吸毒者是

  • Easy targets for police abuse and arrest.

    容易被警察虐待和逮捕的目标

  • Subject to torture or cruel punishment in custody.

    在监管或羁押中遭受酷刑或残忍的惩处

  • Socially marginalized, abandoned.社会边缘人群,闲散人群

  • Afraid to seek health services. (Humane addiction treatment services often do not exist.)

    害怕找健康服务(通常没有对上瘾者的人性化治疗服务)


Harm reduction human rights

Harm reduction & human rights减低危害与人权

  • A human rights-based approach to drug law and policy would allow for, and actively support, harm reduction measures.

    一项人权-基于毒品方面法律和政策允许的范围,积极的支持,危害减低的措施

  • Q: What would a human rights-based approach look like?

    问题:人权的方法是怎样的呢?


Human rights international law

Human rights: international law人权:国际法

  • Human right to enjoy highest attainable standard of health

    享有最高的可获得的健康标准的人权

    Includes right to humane treatment for drug addiction, right to prevention from HIV, hepatitis

    包括,毒品上瘾者享有人性化治疗的权利、预防艾滋病和肝炎的权利

  • Human right of people who use drugs to be free of police harassment and abuse, to assemble, to enjoy due process in the criminal law system

    吸毒者有免受警察骚扰和虐待的权利、集会的权利,并享有权利要求在刑法中以正当的法律程序予以对待。


Human rights approach to drug law policy

Human rights approach to drug law/policy毒品法律政策的人权方法

  • International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights

  • 艾滋病和人权的国际指南

    Guideline 4 (criminal laws and correctional systems)

    Criminal law should not impede HIV prevention or AIDS care for drug users. Review criminal law to consider authorization and promotion of syringe exchange, for example.

    指南4(刑法及校正系统)

    刑法不应阻止对吸毒者的艾滋病预防和对感染者的关怀。例如,应对刑法进行回顾和清理,考虑授权,和促进针具交换

    • Guideline 8

      • Actively involve vulnerable communities in designing and implementing programs

        指南8:在设计和执行项目时积极增加弱势群体的参与


Harm reduction and human rights

Harm reduction and human rights减低危害和人权

Harm reduction “best practice”:减低伤害中的最佳实践

  • Universal access to sterile syringes

    消毒针具的广泛获得

  • Universal access to methadone and other treatment of addiction

    面向上瘾者的美沙酮和其他治疗方式可广泛获得

  • Universal access to harm reduction measures in prison

    监狱中危害减低措施的广泛获得

  • Supervised injection facilities

    接收监督的注射场所

  • Peer education and counselling

    同伴教育和咨询

  • Organizations of drug users are supported

    支持吸毒者组织

  • Laws that do not violate the rights of people who use drugs

    不侵犯吸毒者权利的法律


Harm reduction and international drug control laws

Harm reduction and international drug control laws减低危害和国际麻醉剂控制法律

  • Barriers to harm reduction (global level):

    减低危害的阻碍(国际层面)

    • Power of prohibitionist countries, esp. USA

      禁酒国家的力量,特别是美国

    • Rules of UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs

      联合国麻醉药物委员会的规则

    • Ideological opposition of INCB

      国际麻醉药管制委员会在意思形态方面的反对

    • “War on drugs” very profitable for many

      “毒品战争”对某些人来说有利可图


Harm reduction int l drug control law

Harm reduction & int’l drug control law减低危害与国际毒品控制法

  • Some successes一些成功的例子

    • Netherlands non-prosecution policy

      荷兰的非营利性政策

    • More countries with methadone, sterile syringes in prison

      有更多的国家在监狱中提供美沙酮、清洁针具

    • Switzerland, UK, Canada heroin prescription

      瑞士、英国、加拿大的海洛因规定

    • Safe injection facilities in several countries

      一些国家提供安全注射场所

    • More countries guarantee harm reduction by law: Brazil, Vietnam, Indonesia

      有更多国家立法确保减低危害:巴西、越南、印度尼西亚


Drug policy and hiv aids

Drug policy and HIV/AIDS毒品政策和艾滋病

  • HIV and hepatitis epidemics are forcing countries to reconsider harsh drug laws

    艾滋病和肝炎病毒的流行正迫使国家考虑其苛刻的毒品政策

  • Key opportunity: UN General Assembly Special Session on Drug Control, 2008 – need for strong voice from HIV/AIDS NGOs

    时机:联合国大会毒品控制特别会议,2008年,需要更多来自艾滋病非政府组织强有力的声音


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