Compounds
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 12

Compounds PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 112 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Compounds. Kelley Kuhn CCA. Compounds!. Why do atoms form compounds? To become more stable! The only atoms that are truly stable just alone are the noble gases. There are two main categories of compounds that atoms form: ionic compounds and covalent compounds. IONIC COMPOUNDS.

Download Presentation

Compounds

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Compounds

Compounds

Kelley Kuhn

CCA


Compounds1

Compounds!

Why do atoms form compounds? To become more stable! The only atoms that are truly stable just alone are the noble gases. There are two main categories of compounds that atoms form: ionic compounds and covalent compounds.


Ionic compounds

IONIC COMPOUNDS

  • electrons are transferred from one atom to another creating ions.These ions then form compounds based on electromagnetic attraction between atoms of opposing charges. These compounds are composed of a metal cation (+ ion) and a nonmetal anion (-ion).


Covalent compounds

COVALENT COMPOUNDS

  • electrons are shared in a bond which holds two nonmetal atoms together. Covalent compounds may be either nonpolar if the electrons are shared equally in the bond between the atoms or polar if the electrons in the bond shift toward one atom disproportionately.


How do i determine the type of compound i have

How do I determine the type of compound I have?

  • If the compound begins with hydrogen (H), it is an acid. (HCl, H2SO4, H3PO4) Two exceptions to this rule: H2O and H2O2.

  • If the compound begins with a carbon and only contains carbon and hydrogen, it is a hydrocarbon. (C3H8, C6H12)

  • If the compound begins with a metal or NH4, it is an ionic compound. (NaCl, KNO3)

  • If the compound begins with a nonmetal, it is a covalent compound. (H2O, P2O5, H2O2)


Ionic compounds1

Ionic Compounds

  • In an ionic compound, we find both monatomic ions and polyatomic ions.

  • Monatomic ions: ions of a single atom, i.e., Fe 2+ Fe 3+ Cl- O2-

    For monatomic cations, the names are derived by taking the name of the metal and adding the word “ion”

    For monatomic anions, the names are derived by taking the name of the nonmetal and changing the ending to “ide”


Ionic compounds2

Ionic Compounds

  • Polyatomic ions: ions composed of two or more atoms covalently bonded together, i.e.,

    PO43- (1 P and 4 O with a charge of negative three)

    OH- (1 O and 1 H with a charge of negative one)

    NH4+ (1 N and 4 H with a charge of positive one)


Ionic versus covalent

Ionic versus Covalent


Ionic versus covalent cont

Ionic versus Covalent Cont.


Bonding

Bonding

When two atoms bond in a covalent compound, the difference between the individual electronegativities of the atoms will determine if the bond is ionic, polar, or nonpolar.

The electronegativity scale is relative in that all atoms are given values based on how they compare to fluorine, F, the most electronegative atom of all! Fluorine is assigned the value of 4.0 (the highest) with the range bottoming at 0.7 (Cs). The larger the difference in electronegativity values, the greater the polarity of the bond will be.


Are these bonds polar

Are these bonds polar?

  • Determine the difference in electronegativities of the following pairs of atoms:

    C-H

    Na-O

    S-H

    O-F

    F-H

    N-O

    These bonds are polar if the difference in electronegativities is greater than .4


Are the bonds polar cont

Are the bonds polar, cont.

  • Now, put the following pairs in order from least polar (smallest electronegativity difference) to most polar (greatest electronegativity difference).

  • All of the bonds in a molecule are evaluated when determining if a molecule is polar or nonpolar. Even if a molecule contains several polar bonds, the arrangement of these bonds may cancel each other out, resulting in a nonpolar molecule.


  • Login