Wartime Memories: Institutionalizing American Wars, 1783-Present. “War is an ugly thing, but not the ugliest of things. The decayed and degraded state of moral and patriotic feeling which thinks that nothing is worth war is much worse.”. John Stuart Mill.
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Wartime Memories:Institutionalizing American Wars, 1783-Present
“War is an ugly thing, but not the ugliest of things. The decayed and degraded state of moral and patriotic feeling which thinks that nothing is worth war is much worse.”
John Stuart Mill
"God created war so that Americans would learn geography." decayed and degraded state of moral and patriotic feeling which thinks that nothing is worth war is
“War is not nice.” decayed and degraded state of moral and patriotic feeling which thinks that nothing is worth war is
generalizations, decayed and degraded state of moral and patriotic feeling which thinks that nothing is worth war is
Following a war, most Americans adopt a sort of “official” description of that conflict’s meaning within the larger context of our national life.
Although disagreements occur about a war’s true meaning, a majority consensus emerges very quickly.
George Carlin (1992) majority consensus emerges very quickly.
AMERICA’S WARS majority consensus emerges very quickly.
Definition of “War” for the U.S. majority consensus emerges very quickly.
Presidential or Congressional authorization of
military force against an enemy
American Wars majority consensus emerges very quickly.
The American RevolutionFries’s Rebellion “The Hot Water War”1775-17831797-1799RebellionThe Indian Wars1775-1890The Barbary WarsInter-State War (Rebellion)1800-1815
Inter-State WarShay's Rebellion1786-1787The War of 1812Rebellion1812-1815
Inter-State WarThe Whiskey Rebellion1794War of Texas IndependenceRebellion1838
Inter-State WarQuasi-War With France
1798-1800Mexican-American WarInter-State War1846-1848Inter-State War
American Wars (2) majority consensus emerges very quickly.
U.S. Slave RebellionsSamoan Civil War1800-18651898-1899Civil War & Foreign Intervention“Bleeding Kansas”1855-1860U.S. Philippine WarCivil War (Kansas)1899-1902
Civil War & Foreign InterventionU.S. Civil War1861-1865Boxer RebellionCivil War1900
Rebellion & Foreign InterventionHawaiian Revolution1893The Moro WarsRebellion & Foreign Interven-1901-1913
tionCivil War & Foreign Intervention
Spanish-American WarPanamanian Revolution18981903Inter-State WarRevolution & Foreign Intervention
American Wars (3) majority consensus emerges very quickly.
The Cuban RevolutionWorld War I1906-19091917-1918 (U.S. involvement)
Civil War & Foreign Interven-Inter-State War
Russian Civil WarThe Banana Wars1919-19211909-1933Civil War & Foreign Intervention
Civil Wars & Foreign Interven- tionWorld War II
1941-1945 (U.S. involvement)
U.S. Occupation-Vera CruzInter-State War1914Inter-State WarThe Cold War
1945-1991Raid into MexicoInter-State War1916-1917Inter-State War
American Wars (4) majority consensus emerges very quickly.
The Korean WarThe Mayaguez Rescue Operation
Inter-State WarInter-State Conflict
The Vietnam WarIranian Hostage Rescue-”Desert One”
Civil War, Inter-State WarInter-State Conflict
U.S. in LebanonU.S. Libya Conflict
Civil War & Foreign Interven-Inter-State War
U.S. in Lebanon
Dominican Republic War1982-1984
1965Civil War, Foreign Intervention,
Civil War & Foreign Interven- Inter-State War
American Wars (5) majority consensus emerges very quickly.
Invasion of Grenada“No-Fly-Zone” War-Iraq
Inter-State WarInter-State War
The Tanker WarU.S. in Somalia
Inter-State War & ForeignCivil War & Foreign Intervention
Intervention U.S. (NATO) in Bosnia
Invasion of Panama1994-1995
1989Civil War, Foreign Intervention &
Inter-State War Inter-State War
“Operation Desert Storm”Occupation of Haiti
Inter-State WarForeign Intervention
American Wars (6) majority consensus emerges very quickly.
Strikes on Afghanistan, SudanAttack on World Trade Center & Pentagon
August 1998September 2001(Response to)
Terrorist ConflictTerrorist Conflict
“Desert Fox” (Iraq)Afghanistan War
Inter-State WarWar Against Terrorism
Kosovo War“Operation Iraqi Freedom”
Civil War, Foreign Interven-Inter-State War
tion, Inter-State War
Attack on U.S.S. Cole
“Packers and Steelers go to war in Super Bowl” and budget.”
“The battle will be won or lost in the trenches”
20 and budget.”th-21st Centuries American “Wars”
“War on Drugs”
“War on Crime”
“War on Abortion”
“War on Poverty”
“War on Homosexuality”
“War on Alcohol”
“War on Gun Politics”
“War on Smoking”
“War on Obesity”
“War on Terrorism”
But, if and budget.”
“War Is Not The Answer”
Doesn’t it depend on what the question is?
1939 concrete ways, and always has. Why?
1st edition 1936
Report of the Special Committee on Investigation of the Munitions Industry (The Nye Report) 1936
“The committee finds, further, that the very quality which in civilian life tends to lead toward progressive civilization, namely the improvements of machinery, has been used by the munitions makers to scare nations into a continued frantic expenditure for the latest improvements in devices of warfare. . . .
While the evidence before this committee does not show that wars have been started solely because of the activities of munitions makers and their agents, . . . the committee finds it to be against the peace of the world for selfishly interested organizations to be left free to goad and frighten nations into military activity.”
War and Historical Memory—4 Questions Munitions Industry (The Nye Report) 1936
1. How do reasons for going to war affect our beliefs about who we are?
2. Which actions during a war most contribute to historical memories of that war?
3. In what ways do war’s outcomes underscore or challenge our historical beliefs?
Wars mark the boundaries of American literary history concrete ways, and always has. Why?
TIME PERIODLITERARY GENRE
Post-World War IModernism
Post-World War IIPost-Modernism
MANUFACTURING MEANING FROM THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION concrete ways, and always has. Why?
The First Respected History of the Revolution concrete ways, and always has. Why?
History of the Rise, Progress, and Termination of the American Revolution (3 vols., 1805)
Mercy Otis Warren
The First concrete ways, and always has. Why?American Hero
Mason “Parson” Weems
George Washington (as pictured in Weems’ biography)
Others Join the Pantheon concrete ways, and always has. Why?
THE ADVENT OF THE “BEST-SELLER” concrete ways, and always has. Why?
Stephen Crane concrete ways, and always has. Why?
First edition, 1895
Paul Leicester Ford concrete ways, and always has. Why?
First edition, 1899
“My argument is that War makes rattling good history, but Peace is poor reading.”
Thomas Hardy, British poet and novelist, 1840-1928