牛津初中英语 8B. Unit 1 Past and present. 一、教学内容分析. 中心话题：变迁 —— 本单元讨论的是时代变迁带来的变化和发展，涉及香港交通系统的变化，九龙城的建筑规划、大屿岛的变化和赤蜡角的新机场。. 二、语言功能和重点. 1. 掌握一些反义词并运用于语境中 2. 用现在完成时讨论过去发生的但仍与现在 有关联的事件 3. 熟练掌握现在完成时的时间状语 4. 讨论因时间变迁而产生的变化. 三、本单元各部分材料分析. 1. Welcome to this unit 内容：⑴ Eddie 和 Hobo 的对话 .
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Unit 1 Past and present
1. Welcome to this unit
内容：Lily 采访Mr Dong关于九龙城的变迁。
5. Integrated Skills
Integrated skills 在前面语言学习和技能训练的基础上，将听、说、读、写融为一体，培养学生综合运用英语的能力。教学中应注意培养学生从所给的听力或书面材料中获取、选择和重新组合信息的能力，在此基础上培养学生的口头、笔头表达能力。
6. Study Skills
Study skills 通过活动或练习让学生获得一些基本的学习技巧，教学中应该坚持让学生通过实践以获得学习技巧 。
7. Main Task
Main task是每个单元的核心部分。这部分要引导和帮助学生综合运用本单元所掌握的知识和技能，完成特定的任务。Main task在第一课时就已经点明，此后的各项活动和子任务都在不同程度上指向Main task。布置任务要求目标明确、步骤清晰。
课本的课时安排符合先功能后技能, 在具体语言环境中掌握应用所学语言的规律。但在Comic strips中就出现了现在完成时，为了降低学习的难度，可以利用后面Grammar课时的语言材料及内容提前进行语法教学，对课时原有顺序稍作调整。
Period 1 Grammar A
Period 2 Comic strips & Welcome to the unit
Period 3-4 Reading
Period 5 Vocabulary & Checkout
Period 6 Grammar B
Period 7 Integrated Skills
Period 8 Speak up & Study skills
Period 9 Main task
The teacher can have a free talk with students. For example:
T: When did you come to this school?
S1: I came to this school in 2003.
T: Oh, I know you came here one and a half years ago.
You have been in this school for about two years.
And you have been in this school since 2003.（板书）
T: When did you begin to learn English?
S2: I began to learn English three years ago.
T: You mean you have learned English for more than three years. Am I right?
S3: Yes, you’re right. I have learned English for over three years.
T: Have you learned it since 2001?
The teacher can ask some more questions like this.
T: Do you remember Eddie?
T: Millie is Eddie’s master. Eddie was born four years ago.
Eddie has lived with Millie since he was born.
How many years has he lived with Eddie?
S2: For four years.
T: Yeah, Eddie has lived with Millie for four years.（板书）
Let the students know that the sentences on the board all include the present perfect tense.
Tell the students: We use the simple past tense to talk about what happened at a definite time in the past, like ‘Eddie was born four years ago’.
We use the present perfect tense to talk about things that started in the past and still have some connection with the present, like ‘Eddie has lived with Millie since he was born’. ‘Eddie has lived with Millie for four years.’
We make positive and negative sentences using the present perfect tense like this.
We form the present perfect tense by adding ‘have’
or ‘has’ before a past participle.
e.g. have/has + seen/ done/ sung/, etc.
Tell the student how to write the past participle of verbs.
1) We add ‘-ed’ to regular verbs. （板书）
动词原形 动词过去式 动词过去分词
Task 4 (A1)
Here is a short exercise for students to finish. Ask the students to complete the table with the correct past participle on page 10. And then work out the rule.
Task 5 (A2)
After the short exercise, ask the students to complete the sentences using the present perfect. Help them to complete. Ask them not to forget the verb ‘have’/ ‘has’.
Present the Present perfect tense briefly.
Subject + have/has+ past participle
Teach the students how to ask and answer questions using the present perfect tense.
e.g. Have you arrived? Yes, I have. / No, I haven’t.
Has she left? Yes, she has. / No, she hasn’t.（板书）
The teacher asks the students some more questions .
Task 7 Chat time (A3)
Millie and Sandy are talking about a film about Hong Kong. Complete their conversation using the correct forms of the verbs in brackets.
1)Give them several minutes to complete it.
2)Check the answers with the whole class.
3)Ask some pairs to act out the conversation.
Ask the students to make sentences with the present perfect tense. Students ask each other “Have you ever…?” When a student has found a person who has done the following things, they write a complete sentence, e.g. “Li Hua has traveled to Beijing.”
Find someone who…
1. has traveled to Beijing
2. has kept a rabbit as a pet
3. has been to beaches
4. has watched Harry Porter
5. has listened to Jay Chou
6. has written a poem
Comic strips & Welcome to the unit
Teacher says, ‘Hello, everybody! Did you have a good time last Sunday? Where did you go? What did you do? What did you eat? What food is your favourite?’
My favourite food is chocolate. Today I took a piece of
chocolate here. Oh, where is my chocolate? It was in my
pocket an hour ago.
Teacher asks Ss,
Have you seen my chocolate? --------No, I haven’t.
Ss guess Teacher says
Maybe you have put it in your bag. ---------No, I haven’t.
Maybe you have put it in your book. ---------Yes, I have.
How clever you are! I will send it to you.
Task 1: Teacher asks,
Do you still remember Hobo and Eddie?
What are they talking about now?
Let’s listen to the tape. (play the tape for the Ss to listen to the dialogue between Hobo and Eddie.)
Task 2: Ask some questions about it:
1. Where is Hobo’s food?
2. Why did Eddie eat food?
3. Is Hobo happy?
4. What does Hobo think of Eddie?
Explain the important phrases and sentences in the dialogue.
Phrases：an hour ago, be hungry, be kind, be so bad,
want to do sth, play with sb., not…any more
1.It was in the bowl an hour ago .
2.Because I was very hungry.
3.You were kind.
4.You always wanted to play with me.
5.Have you seen my food?
6.I’ve just eaten it.
7.You’ve eaten my food.
Task 4: Work in pairs and drill the dialogue.
Task 5: Ask some Ss to act the dialogue out, then do the exercise.
Hobo’s food _______ in the _______ an hour ago. But it isn’t there now. Why? Eddie has just _______ it because he is ________. Hobo thinks Eddie has _______ and he is _______ bad now. He doesn’t want to _______ with Eddie any ________.
Task 6: Ask and answer
Eddie and Hobo both think they have changed a lot. That’s true. There are also many changes in our life.
How did you come to school today?
Do you know other different forms of transport？
Task 7: Welcome to the unit.
Show some pictures of the the different forms of transport.
Ask the Ss to fill in the blanks with the correct names. Then check the answers.
Task 8 Guessing game
Read the following sentences and ask the students to guess which mode of transport you are describing.
1. Talk about the transport at different times in Hong Kong using the sentence:
There has been … since ….
2. Read the context of Part A and expand on it to create interest. Link it to personal experiences and talk about the usefulness, convenience and efficiency of different modes of travel.
Which is your favorite transport? Why?
actually, block, marry, dentist, stall, turn, chess, pollution, land, safely, lonely
get married, move to, move out of, turn into, in the past, Chinese chess, play cards/Chinese chess, noise pollution, take off, in some ways, feel a bit lonely, from time to time, open space
1. How long have you known…?
I’ve known the place for many years / since I was very young.
2. We lived together until 1960 when I got married.
3. Has the place changed a lot?
Yes, the place has changed a lot.
4. Was noise pollution a problem before the closing of the old airport?
5. It’s nice to have open space and pretty gardens.
6. It has become more difficult to see my old friends.
7. I feel a bit lonely from time to time.
Review the names of different forms of transport in Hong Kong using pictures.
Learn the following new words by showing some pictures about Hong Kong: take off, market stall, Chinese medicine shop, dentist shop, temple, change a lot, turn into a park.
We have got some information about Hong Kong. Do you thinkHong Kong has changed a lot ?
Millie wants to write about the changes to the Kowloon Walled City in Hong Kong . Now she is interviewing Mr Dong about this place to get some information.
Ask Ss to listen to the conversation between Millie and Mr Dong.
Then answer some T or F questions.
1.Mr Dong was born in the Kowloon Walled City . ______
2.When Mr Dong got married, he moved to another block with his wife. ________
3.They moved out of the Kowloon Walled City in 1991 because Mr Dong had a new job. _____
4.Now there are 30,000 people in the Kowloon Walled City. _____
5.Mr Dong often goes back to meet his old friend . _________
6.Mr Dong and his friend often play cards and Chinese chess at his friend's home. ___________
7.Mr Dong misses his old friend. _____
Task 2 Ask the Ss to read the conversation to get more details and answer some questions.
Read line 1 to line 9 and answer :
1. How long has Mr Dong known the Kowloon Walled City ?
2 .Has Mr Dong actually lived in the Kowloon Walled City ?
3. When did Mr Dong get married ?
4. What did he do after he got married ?
5. When did he move out of the Kowloon Walled City ? Why ?
1. Has the Kowloon Walled City changed a lot or a little?
2. Can you give me examples?
3. What is the place like now ?
Read line 16 to line 24 and answer :
1.Does Mr Dong often go back ?
2. What do they often do in the park ?
3. What was the problem before the closing of the old airport ? Why ?
4. Does Mr Dong miss the planes ? Why ?
Read line 25 to the last line and answer :
Is the life better now ?
for many years
since many years ago
move out of
change a lot
change a little
turn into a park
have open space
feel a bit lonely
from time to time
Mr Dong has k_____ the Kowloon Walled City for many years . In f____, he was born there and has known it s_____he was very young . When he got married in 1960, he m____ to another flat in the same block with his wife . But they had to move out of the Kowloon Walled City in 1991 because the government wanted to build a new park there .
Now the city has c______ a lot. In the past the noise pollution was t______ when the plane t____ off.It is more beautiful and q_____ than before . But Mr Dong often feels a bit l_____ because many of his friends have moved to other areas . He m_____ them very much .
Ask Ss to do Part C1, then check answers as a whole class activity.
Do exercises. Each line has a mistake. Find it out and correct it.
In the past, 20,000 people lived in the Walled City. We had our own Chinese medicine shops, dentists, a temple and some western restaurants. Now it has changed a lot. The place I lived in has changed into a airport now. I often meet my old friends there. Life is better now. And noise pollution is still a problem. But we think the planes were like my new friends and we were always pleased when they took off safely. Now it’s quiet.
Vocabulary & Checkout
单词：lucky, interview, grandpa, unkind, impolite, although, over, unhealthy, sadly, cheap/expensive, easy/difficult, fast/slow, good/bad, happy/sad, high/low, hot/cold, new/old, same/different, long/short, (in)complete, (in)correct, (im)polite, (im)possible, (un)healthy, (un)kind, (un)lucky, (un)pleasant, (dis)honest, (dis)like
词组：have an interview with, ask sb about sth, tell sb about sth, from time to time, as often as before, more and more people
Teacher asks Ss some questions about the reading passage.
1)How many people lived in the Kowloon Walled city in the past? 30,000 people.
2)What shops did they have? They had their own Chinese medicine shops, dentists and market stalls.
3)What were the planes like according to what people said?
They said the planes were like old friends.
4)When were they pleased? When the planes landed safely.
5)What problem was there before the closing of the old airport? There was noise pollution.
Teacher says, “I will give you some English explanations of some
words. Please tell me what words they mean?”
actually----really, in fact block-----a group of buildings
stall-----table, small open-fronted shop in a market.
pleasant---giving pleasure to the mind, feelings
pollution—making sth dirty terrible----very bad
lonely—unhappy because you are alone
landed---arrived and came down to the ground
took off----left the ground and started to fly
miss-------think of someone or something a lot
dentists---people who look after our teeth
married----having a husband or wife
Teacher says, “ I will give you some words. Do you still remember their opposites?”
like----dislike correct---- incorrect
Open your books and turn to Page 8. Ask Ss to read the words together. Explain the meanings of the words if necessary.
What did Millie do with Lily’s grandpa?
She had a interview with Lily’s grandpa.
Read Millie’s diary and underline the wrong words. Write the correct words above the mistakes.
Ask the students to say something about Lily’s grandpa and Mr Dong.
like possible correct formal comfortable order important lock necessary appear happyable regular
1)It is _____ for you to walk your little dog once a week to the park.
2)You’ll be ___________ to pass the exam if you don’t study hard.
3)Can you give us a ____________ answer? I really need your help?
4)Is it __________ to get to the city by train, or must I take a bus?
5)He feels ___________ because he lost this wallet.
6)There is a __________ rain in Sahara Desert every year.
7)Please put these sentences in _________.
8)There was something wrong with his stomach. He felt ________.
1)Chinese people are very ________ to foreign friends. (friend)
2)When he knew the bird died, he felt _______. (happy)
3)It is ________ for us to have a walk in the morning or in the evening. It’s good for our health. (necessary)
4)Xiao Li is very _________, sometimes he loses his books, sometimes he leaves his keys at home. (care)
5)Do you think it’s _______ to protect the wildlife in our world? (unimportant)
6)It is ________ to come to school late. (polite)
7)You should keep _______ in the library. (noisy)
8)It’s very _______ in summer in Nanjing. (cold)
The teacher can have a free talk with the students.
e.g. You have known something about Mr Dong.
Could you tell me anything about Mr Dong?
Recently we have already known a little about Kowloon Walled City. I have never been there before. Have you ever been there?
S1: No, I haven’t been there yet.
T: Mr Dong was born there. He has known it since he was very young. He has known it for a long time.
2) Some more examples:
I have just seen Millie on the playground.
Has Millie called yet? No, she hasn’t.
I have not heard from Millie yet.
I have done my homework already.
I have never read the novel.
for two days/three years
since last night /1992
since two days ago
since I came here last week
3) Give the students several minutes to learn Part B on P12. Pay attention to the differences between these adverbs of time.
Exercises: Choose the correct adverbs of time to complete the sentences.
4) Group work: each group makes four sentences using different adverbs of time.
Different forms of transport on Page 13
Daniel and Simon are talking about the different forms of transport. Complete their conversation using the present perfect tense of the verbs in brackets and the correct adverbs of time.
1)Give them two minutes to complete it.
2) Ask two pairs to act it out. If they have some mistakes, help them to correct them.
Pair work: Make their own conversation using the conversation on page 11 as a model. They can change ‘films’ into ‘books’, ‘magazines’ and so on.
1. Translate the sentences into English.
2. Fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verbs.
1)He ___________ (wait) for an hour.
2)I ___________ (not finish) the work yet.
3)___________ you ___________ (know) him since then?
4)I ___________ (hear) from my brother recently.
5)We ___________ (be) there many times in the past 3 years.
6)How long __________ you __________ (stay) at home already?
7)He ___________ (not read) the book before.
8)Her sister ___ (go) to Changchun. She___ (leave) this morning.
9)He ___________ (live) in his hometown since he left here.
10)The writer __________ (finish) several story-books since 1990.
Say something about the Kowloon Walled City in the past and now.
Talk about the pictures below
in the past
T: What can you see in the picture on the left?
Ss: I can see some small boats.
Ss: I can see some fishermen.
T: Where is it?
Ss: Maybe it is a small harbour or small villages near the sea.
T: What do you think of it?
Ss: It is very poor and the air around it is dirty too.
T: What kinds of wildlife live there?
Ss: Wild ducks and birds etc.
T: Do you know where it is? （pointing at the picture on the right）
Ss: It is in Hong Kong.
T: Yes, it is in Hong Kong now. The picture on the left is Lantau Island in the past. Can you see anychanges from the pictures?
Ask the students to discuss the changes in groups of four in 3 minutes.（advise the students to discuss from the environment, transport, people and so on）
Ask the students to report their discussion.
T: Yes. There have been great changes over the years.（Here over means during.）I feel surprised. Do you think so?
T: If you feel surprised too, you have the samefeelingas I.
T: Open your books on page 14. Look at part A1 and read through the lists below.（Make sure the students know what to do next ）
Play the tape for the students to listen and complete the lists.
Play the tape again and check the answers with the students.
Ask the students to talk about Lantau Island in the past and now in a few words according to the lists.
Present part A2
T: Have you ever been to Hong Kong?
Do you know Hong Kong well?
T: Daniel’s uncle is going to Hong Kong for a holiday next month. Daniel wants to tell him about the new airport and the changes around Lantau Island in his letter. Help him complete his letter on page 15.
First read the words on page 14.Then fill in the blanks on page 15.
Check the answers with the students.
Let the students read the letter by Daniel.
Find out some key sentences in the letter and explain them.
Fill in the blanks
Daniel’s uncle is going to Hong Kong _____ a holiday. He has got some information about Hong Kong from Daniel’s letter. There have been many _____ in Hong Kong. There is a new ______ in Chek Lap Kok. It ______ been in use ____ 1998.It was built ____ the north of Lantau Island. People can take the _______ there to Central. It _________ about 23 minutes only. There are also many airport ______. There is a new _____ called the Tsing Ma Bridge. Tourists can take the bus to ____ the bridge. People will be_____ by all tall ______ around them when they arrive. Things have ______ a lot _______ the years.
Speak up & Study skills
T: We know there have been great changes in Hong Kong over the years from the letter. Have there been changes in your life? Now you are in secondary school .You can go to school by bus or by bike. How did you go to school when you were in primary school?
S1: My father took me to school every day.
S2: My mother took me to school every day. Sometimes my grandfather took me to school.
Ask some students where they were born. Some students may answer the question.
And ask the students who wasn’t born in Changzhou. They may give some other places.
And what feeling do they have when they go back to their hometown. Some students will say there are many changes in their hometowns. That is to say there have been many great changes in many places, because China is developing very fast,
Listen to Millie and Sandy’s conversation on the tape
Ask the following questions.
1)How did Millie go to school when she was in primary school?
2)How does Millie go to school now?
Read the conversation in pairs. Then let the students make a similar conversation in pairs. Work in pairs and replace the dialogue according to the given.
Work in pairs and find out about the changes in your partner’s life.
When we do some reading, we often meet many new words. Ask the students what they will do when they meet new words.
How do you look up a new word in an English dictionary? Tell them how to use an English dictionary, showing a dictionary to the students.
Tell the students the English words in a dictionary are in alphabetical order from ‘A’ to ‘Z’.
Ask the students to put the following words in alphabetical order.
ball, banana, bank
Turn to page 16. Then check the answers.
Then finish part A
Task 6 Part B
On the left are some page numbers and guide words from a dictionary. Help Daniel write down the page numbers for the words on the right.
And check the answers.
IV. Post-task Do some games.
• Upebz jt Uivstebz. (Today is Thursday.)
• J mjlf dipdpmbuf. (I like chocolate.)
• Xf mjlf jo Cfjkjoh. (We live in Beijing.)
• Uif tvo sjtft jo uif fbtu. (The sun rises in the east.)
Ask students to talk about the changes to Lantau Island.
If they say “Yes”, teacher can present “convenient”.
If they say “No”, teacher can present “cause many problems”.
2. Ask them to make sentences with “convenient” and “cause”.
Task 1 Ask them to read the report as quickly as possible.
Task 2 Ask them to fill in the blanks:
Lantau Island is a place in Hong Kong. It u_____ to be the home of many wild animals. There ______ (be) green hills and f______ air. However, the area has ______ (change) o_____ the years. There are now many more roads, buildings and people. It no longer p_____ a good e______ for wildlife.
In the past, people could only go to Lantau Island b_____ f______ and it was very quiet there. Things have changed a lot, and a new airport in Chek Lap Kok ______ (open) in 1998. Now, people can take the bus, the underground, the Airport E_____ or the ferry to Lantau Island. It is fast and c______.
The c_____ to Lantau Island have ___(bring) many b___ but they have also c______ many problems for wildlife. Some animals and plants have ______ (loss) their _____ (live) areas because of these changes.
Task 3. Ask Ss to work in pairs to find out the main idea of each
Task 4. Show them some pictures about Changzhou in the past and
present. Ask them to ask and answer in pairs according to the
questions on P18.
Teacher can write down some notes on the blackboard to help them.
In the past Now
Ask them to discuss in groups of four to think about some useful
phrases and sentences.
Ask them to write their own report on the changes to Changzhou.