chapter 11 national and regional growth
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Chapter 11: National and Regional Growth

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Chapter 11: National and Regional Growth. 11.1 Early Industry and Inventions Free Enterprise. Industrial Revolution : Factory machines replaced hand tools. Manufacturing replaced farming as the main source of work in some areas of the country.

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11 1 early industry and inventions free enterprise
11.1 Early Industry and InventionsFree Enterprise
  • Industrial Revolution:
  • Factory machines replaced hand tools.
  • Manufacturing replaced farming as the main source of work in some areas of the country.
  • Children were often workers in the new factories.

The factory system caused people to crowd together into cities.

  • Most factories used water power.
  • The War of 1812 helped push industrialization because of the British naval blockade.
  • This kept imported goods from coming in.
  • It stopped investors from spending money on shipping and trade and instead they invested in industry.
  • American businessmen began building their own factories in New England.

factories come to new england
Factories Come to New England
  • The area was good for manufacturing because it had many fast-moving streams and rivers.
  • There was easy access to shipping.
  • There was a willing and plentiful work force because farming was hard there due to rocky soil.

Samuel Slater built the first spinning mill (cotton into thread) in Pawtucket Rhode Island in 1790.

  • Slater first hired children, but then whole families.
and now for a bit of trivia
(and now for a bit of trivia)

 Slater went to work at an early age as an apprentice for the owner of a cotton mill in England. Eventually rising to the position of superintendent, he became very familiar with the mill machines designed by Richard Arkwright, a genius whose other advances included using water power to drive his machines and dividing labor among groups of workers.


In 1789, Slater emigrated to the United States. He dreamed of making a fortune by helping to build a textile industry. He did so covertly: British law forbade textile workers to share technological information or to leave the country. Slater set foot in New York in late 1789, having memorized the details of Britain\'s innovative machines..

the lowell mills hire women
The Lowell Mills Hire Women
  • In 1813 Lowell built a factory in Waltham, Mass. That spun cotton into yarn, then wove it into cloth. (this makes the process go even faster)
  • Lowell had seen power looms in factories in England and then he figured out how to build them (industrial espionage again).

Up until now, the Brits have had the market cornered on such technology and the building of it was highly guarded.

  • in·dus·tri·ales·pi·o·nage
  • Noun: spying directed toward discovering the secrets of a rival manufacturer or other industrial company
  • This is illegal. It is like John Rolfe and his tobacco plant. Microsoft/Apple; Samsung/Apple
life in the mills
Life in the Mills
  • Lowell employed farm girls who lived in company owned boarding houses and they worked 12 ½ hour days.
  • At first the pay was good, but by the 1830’s falling profits caused wages to drop and working conditions worsened (Panic of 1837).
  • Older women supervised the work.
  • Girls went to church, read books, published a magazine, and went to lectures.
  • Girls usually only worked a few years till they were married.
a new way to manufacture
A New Way to Manufacture
  • In 1797 the U.S. government hired Eli Whitney to make 10,000 muskets for the army.
  • Before this time guns were made one at a time by hand so no two were alike which made it hard to fix when a part broke.
interchangeable parts
interchangeable parts
  • By 1801 Whitney had developed muskets using interchangeable parts.
  • Machines that produce exactly matching parts became standard in industry.
  • Interchangeable parts did three important things:

Sped up production

Made repairs easy

Allowed use of lower-paid, less skilled workers (they didn’t need to know how to make EVERY part of an item).

moving people goods and messages
Moving People, Goods, and Messages
  • Robert Fulton applied the steam engine to boats.
  • Steamboats carried people and goods farther and faster.
  • In 1816 Henry Shreve sailed the first steamboat up the Mississippi River against the current.
  • In 1837 Morse demonstrated the telegraph.
  • By 1844 the first long-distance telegraph line sent a message from New York to Washington DC
  • Both the telegraph and steamboat encouraged national unity.
technology improves farming
Technology Improves Farming
  • In 1836 John Deere invented a lightweight plow with a steel cutting edge.
  • This kind of plow was needed because old plows were made of cast iron and were fine for light sand soil in New England, but Midwestern soil clung to the bottom these old plows and slowed farmers down.
cause effect
  • New farm technology allowed Midwestern farmers to be successful and send large quantities of food to the northeastern factory workers.
  • Northeastern factory workers produced finished goods consumed by the Midwestern farmers.
  • Growth of the northeastern textile mills caused an increased demand for southern cotton which helped cause the expansion of slavery.
  • AND better transportation (steamboat, roads, canals) allowed all of this to happen more quickly.