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Premier Nikita Khrushchev

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Premier Nikita Khrushchev. About the capitalist states, it doesn\'t depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist. If you don\'t like us, don\'t accept our invitations, and don\'t invite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you . -- 1956.

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Premier Nikita Khrushchev

About the capitalist states, it doesn\'t depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist.If you don\'t like us, don\'t accept our invitations, and don\'tinvite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you. -- 1956

De-Stalinization Program

the three crisis of 1956
The Suez Canal

Controlled by a French-British Company

Egypt Nationalizes the Canal

Egypt and Israel Go to war

U.K. and France use war as an opportunity to occupy canal.

USSR vehemently opposes action

US refuses to support Allies

British and French have to withdraw

Proof that US and USSR control international politics.

United Nations Introduces “Peace Keepers”

The Three Crisis of 1956
2 poland strives for independence 1956
Puppet Prime Minister Dies

Lack of consumer goods lead to uprisings

Poland refuses to ascend Soviet nominee

Poland elect their own candidate, Gomulka

Soviets approve after Gomulka agrees to cooperate with USSR

Maintained military alliances but modifies economic policy

Improves Relationship with R.C.C.

Russia mobilizes troops at the boarder but Gomulka reassures Khrushchev of his good intentions

2. Poland Strives for Independence 1956
hungarian uprising 1956
Gomulkan Reforms Spread to Hungary

Student Demonstration in Budapest escalates into revolution

Imre Nagy put in power, wants more independence for Hungary

Soviets invade and execute Nagy

The USSR and USA are the Hegemonic powers of the world.

Hungarian Uprising 1956
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The Hungarian Uprising: Cont.

Imre Nagy, HungarianPrime Minister

  • Promised free elections.
  • This could lead to the end of communist rule in Hungary.
space race
United States and The Soviet Union compete to explore space

Origins in Military Rockets (German V2)

The ability to deliver Nuclear Warheads drive the race (Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles) ICBM

Also opportunity for espionage

Russians take the early Lead

Space Race
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Sputnik I (1957)

The Russians have beaten America in space—they have the technological edge!

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Nixon-Khrushchev“Kitchen Debate”(1959)

Cold War ---> Tensions

<--- Technology & Affluence

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U-2 Spy Incident (1960)

Col. Francis Gary Powers’ plane was shot down over Soviet airspace.

Socialist revolution is being split between China and USSR.

Thwarts 1960 Paris Conference between Eisenhower and Khrushchev

Demonstration of Soviet Revolutionary Zeal

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Vienna, 1961

Khrushchev & JFK meet to discuss Berlin and nuclear proliferation. Khrushchev thinks that JFK is young, inexperienced, and can be rolled.

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The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961)

Goal: Stop the Refugee Crisis From East to West

CheckpointCharlie

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Ich bin ein Berliner!(1963)

President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them!

slide15

Khrushchev Embraces Castro,1961

Castro: Revolutionary and Opportunist

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Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

We went eyeball-to-eyeball with the Russians, and the other man blinked!

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An Historic Irony: Sergei Khrushchev, American Citizen

Son is a Citizen of the United States and a Professor at Brown University

cold war brezhnev and gorbachev
Supreme Soviet from 1964-1982

Invasion of Czechoslovakia 1968

Remembered as the Prague Spring

Dubcek experiments with liberal communism

USSR and allies invade an promote the pro-Moscow Husak

He reversed all of Ducek’s reforms

The Brezhnev Doctrine: USSR will intervene in all communist countries in the name of preserving the revolution

Brezhnev Stagnation: Economic Recession, Ignored

Cold War: Brezhnev and Gorbachev
us soviet relations d tente 1964 1980
Brezhnev attempts to reach out to Americans, while promoting socialist expansion

Period characterized by a reduction in arms and the understanding of spheres of influence

Helsinki Accords: Supported by NATO, recognized Human Rights

USSR and US continue to promote their agendas around the world

Arms Race Continues

USSR has largest military force in the world, and nuclear parity with the US

Relations deteriorate after USSR invades Afghanistan.

US Boycotts Soviet Olympics(1980), provides aid and arms to the Taliban.

US Soviet Relations: Détente 1964-1980
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European Empires Post WWII

Decolonization: the achievement of independence by the various western colonies and protectorates in Asia and Africa following World War II.

vietnam war 1959 1973
French

Second Indochina War

Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Communist) v. Republic of Vietnam (US Supported)

French ask for US support in finance and small arms

French are defeated at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu.

As part of the Geneva Convention, Laos Cambodia and Vietnam are given independence.

Vietnam was partitioned temporarily at the 17th parallel .

Political turmoil ensues

Vietnam War 1959-1973
vietnam war cont
The Domino Theory

The pro-western regimes of Laos and Cambodia align with communist movement.

US pledges aid to Diem and South Vietnam

Later fell in a coup, and was executed

Political chaos follows

Kennedy increases “advisors” from 800 to 16,000

Throughout the 60’s the crisis escalates

Only was America has ever lost.

To Be Continued if time allows!

Vietnam War: Cont.
legacy of decolonization
Extreme Poverty

Political instability

Civil War

Famine

Poverty

Disease

Regions with natural wealth but human poverty.

Legacy of Decolonization
reagan and gorbachev
Reagan puts pressure on the Soviets

Increases defense spending and develops “Star Wars”

Communist economic problems plague the eastern bloc (Poland)

Gorbachev and Perestroika

Attempt at Economic Revival

Glasnost: A Communist Debate

Easing of political and economic restrictions

1989 New Constitution and Elections

Gorbachev’s economic policies fail but he opens the door for future democracy.

Brandenburg Gate Speech

Reagan and Gorbachev
the end of the cold war revolutions in eastern europe
Poland: 1980 restrictions relaxed

The Elections of 1989 end the dominance of the Communist Party

Gorbachev approves the Solidarity Parties nominee

Hungary: 1989, opened its boarder with Austria

Mass exodus of East Germans

Democratic elections by October

Romania: 1989 Violent Revolution

Gorbachev Renounces the Brezhnev Docterine

The End of The Cold War: Revolutions in Eastern Europe
the day the wall came down
Popular Movements in East Germany call for unification

Protests and demonstrators force the communist government to step down.

In November of 1989, West and East Germans embrace and begin the long hard struggle of tearing down the political, social and economic wall that was the greatest symbol of the cold war

The Day the Wall Came Down
the fall of the ussr
Gorbachev recognizes the need for reform

Eliminates the Single Party State

Republics wage a “War of Laws”

Gorbachev allies with the conservatives, Bad Move!

August 1991 the Conservatives attempt a coup and place Gorbachev under house arrest.

The People Speak: the largest protest in the History of Russia, The Communist Party disintegrates

Yeltsin gains favor

December 1991, under a revised constitution the Soviet Union ceases to exist: The Cold War is Over!

The Fall of the USSR
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