Premier Nikita Khrushchev. About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist. If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don't invite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you . -- 1956.
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Premier Nikita Khrushchev
About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist.If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don'tinvite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you. -- 1956
The Suez Canal
Controlled by a French-British Company
Egypt Nationalizes the Canal
Egypt and Israel Go to war
U.K. and France use war as an opportunity to occupy canal.
USSR vehemently opposes action
US refuses to support Allies
British and French have to withdraw
Proof that US and USSR control international politics.
United Nations Introduces “Peace Keepers”
The Suez Crisis: 1956-1957
Puppet Prime Minister Dies
Lack of consumer goods lead to uprisings
Poland refuses to ascend Soviet nominee
Poland elect their own candidate, Gomulka
Soviets approve after Gomulka agrees to cooperate with USSR
Maintained military alliances but modifies economic policy
Improves Relationship with R.C.C.
Russia mobilizes troops at the boarder but Gomulka reassures Khrushchev of his good intentions
Gomulkan Reforms Spread to Hungary
Student Demonstration in Budapest escalates into revolution
Imre Nagy put in power, wants more independence for Hungary
Soviets invade and execute Nagy
The USSR and USA are the Hegemonic powers of the world.
The Hungarian Uprising: Cont.
Imre Nagy, HungarianPrime Minister
United States and The Soviet Union compete to explore space
Origins in Military Rockets (German V2)
The ability to deliver Nuclear Warheads drive the race (Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles) ICBM
Also opportunity for espionage
Russians take the early Lead
Sputnik I (1957)
The Russians have beaten America in space—they have the technological edge!
Cold War ---> Tensions
<--- Technology & Affluence
U-2 Spy Incident (1960)
Col. Francis Gary Powers’ plane was shot down over Soviet airspace.
Socialist revolution is being split between China and USSR.
Thwarts 1960 Paris Conference between Eisenhower and Khrushchev
Demonstration of Soviet Revolutionary Zeal
Khrushchev & JFK meet to discuss Berlin and nuclear proliferation. Khrushchev thinks that JFK is young, inexperienced, and can be rolled.
The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961)
Goal: Stop the Refugee Crisis From East to West
Ich bin ein Berliner!(1963)
President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them!
Khrushchev Embraces Castro,1961
Castro: Revolutionary and Opportunist
Bay of Pigs Debacle (1961)
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
We went eyeball-to-eyeball with the Russians, and the other man blinked!
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
An Historic Irony: Sergei Khrushchev, American Citizen
Son is a Citizen of the United States and a Professor at Brown University
Supreme Soviet from 1964-1982
Invasion of Czechoslovakia 1968
Remembered as the Prague Spring
Dubcek experiments with liberal communism
USSR and allies invade an promote the pro-Moscow Husak
He reversed all of Ducek’s reforms
The Brezhnev Doctrine: USSR will intervene in all communist countries in the name of preserving the revolution
Brezhnev Stagnation: Economic Recession, Ignored
Brezhnev attempts to reach out to Americans, while promoting socialist expansion
Period characterized by a reduction in arms and the understanding of spheres of influence
Helsinki Accords: Supported by NATO, recognized Human Rights
USSR and US continue to promote their agendas around the world
Arms Race Continues
USSR has largest military force in the world, and nuclear parity with the US
Relations deteriorate after USSR invades Afghanistan.
US Boycotts Soviet Olympics(1980), provides aid and arms to the Taliban.
European Empires Post WWII
Decolonization: the achievement of independence by the various western colonies and protectorates in Asia and Africa following World War II.
Vietnam War: 1965-1973
Second Indochina War
Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Communist) v. Republic of Vietnam (US Supported)
French ask for US support in finance and small arms
French are defeated at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu.
As part of the Geneva Convention, Laos Cambodia and Vietnam are given independence.
Vietnam was partitioned temporarily at the 17th parallel .
Political turmoil ensues
The Domino Theory
The pro-western regimes of Laos and Cambodia align with communist movement.
US pledges aid to Diem and South Vietnam
Later fell in a coup, and was executed
Political chaos follows
Kennedy increases “advisors” from 800 to 16,000
Throughout the 60’s the crisis escalates
Only was America has ever lost.
To Be Continued if time allows!
Regions with natural wealth but human poverty.
Reagan puts pressure on the Soviets
Increases defense spending and develops “Star Wars”
Communist economic problems plague the eastern bloc (Poland)
Gorbachev and Perestroika
Attempt at Economic Revival
Glasnost: A Communist Debate
Easing of political and economic restrictions
1989 New Constitution and Elections
Gorbachev’s economic policies fail but he opens the door for future democracy.
Brandenburg Gate Speech
Poland: 1980 restrictions relaxed
The Elections of 1989 end the dominance of the Communist Party
Gorbachev approves the Solidarity Parties nominee
Hungary: 1989, opened its boarder with Austria
Mass exodus of East Germans
Democratic elections by October
Romania: 1989 Violent Revolution
Gorbachev Renounces the Brezhnev Docterine
Popular Movements in East Germany call for unification
Protests and demonstrators force the communist government to step down.
In November of 1989, West and East Germans embrace and begin the long hard struggle of tearing down the political, social and economic wall that was the greatest symbol of the cold war
Gorbachev recognizes the need for reform
Eliminates the Single Party State
Republics wage a “War of Laws”
Gorbachev allies with the conservatives, Bad Move!
August 1991 the Conservatives attempt a coup and place Gorbachev under house arrest.
The People Speak: the largest protest in the History of Russia, The Communist Party disintegrates
Yeltsin gains favor
December 1991, under a revised constitution the Soviet Union ceases to exist: The Cold War is Over!