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1.6 Fundamental Calculations

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1.6 Fundamental Calculations

1.6.1. Mass Balance

In steady state flow, the total mass of material entering a reactor must equal to total mass leaving the reactor

- A large pulverized, coal-fired steam boiler generates steam to generate electricity. Compute the total mass of material entering and leaving the boiler.
- Input:
- 455 tons coal/h (114.8 kg/s)

- coal assay (by mass): 2.1% sulfur

8% ash

- 30% excess air

- Output: SO2, CO2, N2, O2, flyash in stack gas and bottom ash from boiler
- Assumption:
- all the sulfur and carbon are converted to SO2 and CO2

- 18% of ash leaves as fly ash and 82% leaves as bottom ash

Electricity

- See notes for detailed calculations

Pulverized

Coal-fired

Steam

boiler

SO2

CO2

N2

O2

Flyash in stack

Bottom ash in boiler

455 tons coal /h

(114.8 kg/sec)

2.1% Sulfur

8% ash

Electricity

SO2

CO2

N2

O2

Flyash in stack

Bottom ash in boiler

Pulverized

Coal-fired

Steam

boiler

- Summary

455 tons coal /h

(114.8 kg/sec)

2.1% Sulfur

8% ash

Carbon: 103.2 kg C/sec

Sulfur: 2.4096 kg S/sec

Ash: 9.184 kg ash/sec

Oxygen: 360.89248 kg O2/sec

Nitrogen: 1177.1365 kg N2/sec

Total: 1652 kg/sec

CO2: 378.4 kg CO2/sec

SO2: 4.8192 kg SO2/sec

Bottom ash: 7.5309 kg/sec

Fly ash in stack: 1.6531 kg/sec

Oxygen: 83.2832 kg O2/sec

Nitrogen: 1177.1365 kg N2/sec

Total: 1652 kg/sec

- The plant produces approximately 13,000 tons of coke per day, along with more than 225 million cubic feet of coke oven gas. Clairton Works is the largest cokeproducing facility in the United States, supplying blast furnace coke for iron and steel production for the commercial coke market, the Mon Valley Works and other U. S. Steel facilities