Chapter 5
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Chapter 5. Energy. Energy and Work. Energy – the ability to cause change. Kinetic energy – energy in the form of motion. Potential energy – stored energy. Work – the transfer of energy through motion. Work = Force x Distance W = FD Units = Joules ( Newtons x meters).

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Chapter 5

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Chapter 5

Chapter 5

Energy


Energy and work

Energy and Work

  • Energy – the ability to cause change.

  • Kinetic energy – energy in the form of motion.

  • Potential energy – stored energy.

  • Work – the transfer of energy through motion.

    • Work = Force x Distance

    • W = FD

      • Units = Joules (Newtons x meters)


Conservation of energy

Conservation of Energy

  • Mechanical energy – the total amount of kinetic and potential energy in a system.

  • Law of conservation of energy – states that energy can change form but it cannot be created or destroyed under ordinary conditions.


Human energy

Human Energy

  • Calorie – a unit used by nutritionists to measure how much energy we get from specific foods.

    • 1 calorie ( = 1 kilocalorie) – 4180 Joules.

    • Each gram of fat supplies 9 calories of energy.


Temperature and heat

Temperature and Heat

  • Temperature – a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter.

  • Thermal energy – is the total energy of the particles in a material.

  • Heat – the thermal (or internal) energy that flows from something with a higher temperature to something with a lower temperature. (i.e. heat is energy transferred between objects at different temperatures.


Thermal pollution

Thermal Pollution

  • Thermal pollution – when waste heat significantly changes the temperature of the environment.


Measuring thermal energy

Measuring Thermal Energy

  • Specific heat – amount of energy it takes to raise the temperature of 1kg of a substance by 1o C.

  • Thermal Energy Equation

    • Q = mc∆T

    • Q is change in thermal energy

    • m is mass

    • c is specific heat

    • ∆ is the final temp. – the initial temp.


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