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### Chapter 5

Energy

Energy and Work

- Energy – the ability to cause change.
- Kinetic energy – energy in the form of motion.
- Potential energy – stored energy.
- Work – the transfer of energy through motion.
- Work = Force x Distance
- W = FD
- Units = Joules (Newtons x meters)

Conservation of Energy

- Mechanical energy – the total amount of kinetic and potential energy in a system.
- Law of conservation of energy – states that energy can change form but it cannot be created or destroyed under ordinary conditions.

Human Energy

- Calorie – a unit used by nutritionists to measure how much energy we get from specific foods.
- 1 calorie ( = 1 kilocalorie) – 4180 Joules.
- Each gram of fat supplies 9 calories of energy.

Temperature and Heat

- Temperature – a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter.
- Thermal energy – is the total energy of the particles in a material.
- Heat – the thermal (or internal) energy that flows from something with a higher temperature to something with a lower temperature. (i.e. heat is energy transferred between objects at different temperatures.

Thermal Pollution

- Thermal pollution – when waste heat significantly changes the temperature of the environment.

Measuring Thermal Energy

- Specific heat – amount of energy it takes to raise the temperature of 1kg of a substance by 1o C.
- Thermal Energy Equation
- Q = mc∆T
- Q is change in thermal energy
- m is mass
- c is specific heat
- ∆ is the final temp. – the initial temp.

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