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The Outgroup Homogeneity Effect: What happens when Faces are Angry?. Mark Schaller University of British Columbia. Thank you. Josh Ackerman Jenessa Shapiro Vaughn Becker Vladas Griskevicius Jon Maner Steve Neuberg Doug Kenrick Research supported by U.S. National Institutes of Health.

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The outgroup homogeneity effect what happens when faces are angry l.jpg

The Outgroup Homogeneity Effect: What happens when Faces are Angry?

Mark Schaller

University of British Columbia


Thank you l.jpg
Thank you are Angry?

  • Josh Ackerman

  • Jenessa Shapiro

  • Vaughn Becker

  • Vladas Griskevicius

  • Jon Maner

  • Steve Neuberg

  • Doug Kenrick

  • Research supported by U.S. National Institutes of Health


The outgroup homogeneity effect definition l.jpg
The outgroup homogeneity effect: Definition are Angry?

  • “The tendency to perceive members of an out-group as “all alike” or more similar to each other than members of the ingroup” (Baron, Byrne, Branscombe, 2006, 11th edition).


Examples of the outgroup homogeneity effect l.jpg
Examples of the outgroup homogeneity effect are Angry?

  • People rate students from another university as more homogeneous than students at their own university (Rothgerber, 1997).

  • This can reverse (creating “in-group homogeneity”) among some minority groups seeking a strong sense of solidarity within their ingroup (Simon & Pettigrew, 1992).

  • Eyewitness identification (Anthony, Copper, & Mullen, 1992).


Functional perspective on allocation of attention l.jpg
Functional perspective on allocation of attention are Angry?

  • Attention is a limited resource. It is allocated selectively to things that matter most (Schaller, Park, & Kenrick, 2007).

  • E.g., snakes (Ohman et al., 2001).

  • E.g., attractive women (Maner et al., 2003).

  • E.g., ingroup members)


Angry faces l.jpg
Angry faces are Angry?

  • The face in the crowd effect (Fox, Lester, Russo, Bowles, Pichler, & Dutton, 2000).

  • Angry faces are like snakes.


Hypothesis l.jpg
Hypothesis are Angry?

  • When people are looking at neutral faces, we will replicate the outgroup homogeneity effect (Better recognition memory for ingroup faces than outgroup faces.)

  • When people are looking at angry faces, the outgroup homogeneity effect will be eliminated and maybe even reversed (Better recognition memory for outgroup faces than ingroup faces).


Methods l.jpg
Methods are Angry?

  • Experimental Design: 2 (Target Race: Black, White) x 2 (Target Expression: Neutral, Angry) x 2 (Distracter: Present, Absent) x 3 (Presentation Duration: 500ms, 1000ms, 4000ms) mixed design. (Target Race and Target Expression were within-participant manipulations and Presentation Duration and Distracter were between-participants manipulations.)


Methods continued l.jpg
Methods (continued) are Angry?

  • One hundred ninety-two White undergraduate students (117 male, 75 female) participated in exchange for course credit.

  • Presentation stimuli included sixteen 5x3.5-inch grayscale, front-oriented male faces (Black/White, angry/neutral).

  • For participants in the Distracter-Present condition, sixteen similarly sized grayscale images of abstract art were randomly paired with the faces.


Methods continued10 l.jpg
Methods (continued) are Angry?

  • Counterbalanced across participants, sixteen new faces (Black/White, angry/neutral) were employed as foils in the recognition memory test.

  • Participants next watched a five-minute distracter film clip before recognition memory task (including previously-presented faces and foils). For each photograph, participants responded on a 6-point scale ranging from “definitely did not see” to “definitely did see.”


Methods continued11 l.jpg
Methods (continued) are Angry?

  • Nonparametric signal detection measures of sensitivity (A') and response bias (B''d) (Stanislaw & Todorov, 1999; Donaldson 1992).

  • Analyses: 2 (Target Race: Black, White) x 2 (Target Expression: Neutral, Angry) x 2 (Distracter: Present, Absent) x 3 (Presentation Duration: 500ms, 1000ms, 4000ms) ANOVA on A’ and B”d.


Results a and b d l.jpg
Results (A’ and B’’d) are Angry?

  • A’: 2-way Target Race X Target Expression interaction: F(1,191)=44.90, p<.001.

  • B’’d: 2-way Target Race X Target Expression interaction: F(1,191)=70.43, p<.001.


Effects of processing time and distractors on a l.jpg
Effects of Processing Time and Distractors on A’ are Angry?

  • A planned contrast comparing the Target Race X Target Expressions interaction in the most highly constrained condition (500ms/distracter) to that in the least constrained condition (4000ms/no distracter), indicated a significant change in the strength of the memory crossover, F(1,186)=4.51, p<.05.

  • These results support the possibility that the out-group heterogeneity effect for angry faces may emerge primarily when processing ability is limited.


Limitations l.jpg
Limitations are Angry?

  • Only Male target faces.

  • Only Black/White target faces.

  • Only White participants.

  • Only angry faces.

  • Only university students as participants.

  • Only people from one culture as participants.


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