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Announcements 1. check your grade //get notebook back // pick up new papers 2. test retakes 3. HOURS reminder 4. for Friday! – petri dish, half full of lichen or moss. 5. Get cicadas now, they will be gone by bug collection time. Biology Review.

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Biology Review

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Biology review

Announcements1. check your grade //get notebook back // pick up new papers2. test retakes3. HOURS reminder4. for Friday! – petri dish, half full of lichen or moss.5. Get cicadas now, they will be gone by bug collection time


Biology review

Biology Review

  • You MUST be familiar with the taxonomic hierarchy.

  • Kingdom

    • Phylum

      • Class

        • Order

          • Family (always ends in dae)

          • Genus, species. Together these make up the scientific name. Always in latin, italics


Invertebrate animals

Invertebrate Animals

What you need to know


Sponges

Sponges

  • Characteristics – simplest animals, no tissues,

  • Examples – Venus flower basket, bath sponge

  • Support – spicules – calcium, silica or protein

  • Movement – sessile (don’t move)

  • Food Getting – collar cells capture food

  • Digestion – by vacuoles

  • Circulation – collar cell flagella move water through, amoeba like cells move food vacuoles around

  • Respiration – no

  • Nervous – no

  • Reproduction – budding and sexual

  • Importance/Nature – clean/filter huge amounts of water

  • Importance/Economy – minor, bath sponge formerly very important


Lichen or moss

Lichen or Moss

  • Name and hour on the TOP of the petri dish

  • Place the sample face down.

  • Do NOT tape closed

  • Sample goes on the back counter.


Phylum of the day cnidaria

Phylum of the Day - Cnidaria

  • Jellyfish and their relatives

  • Stinging cells is the major characteristic

  • Really simple body – only one opening, two layers of tissue – no brain

  • Two forms – polyp (anemone, coral, hydra) and medusa (jellyfish)

  • Corals are one of the most important animals on earth.


Jellyfish

Jellyfish

The largest and the deadliest


Mushroom coral mouth

Mushroom coral mouth


Anemones

Anemones


Hydra captures a daphnia

Hydra captures a daphnia


Cnidarians

Cnidarians

  • Characteristics – true tissues, 2 tissue layers, tentacles, stinging cells, radial symmetry – two forms, medusa or polyp

  • Examples – coral, anemone, jellyfish, hydra, Portuguese man-of-war, Lion’s Mane jellyfish, Box jellyfish

  • Support – water pressure

  • Movement – muscle cells and a ring of muscle around the bell of the medusa form

  • Food Getting – stinging cells, tentacles

  • Digestion – one cavity

  • Circulation – no system

  • Respiration – no system

  • Nervous – a nerve ring in the mesoglea (middle layer)

  • Reproduction – budding & sexual. Some alternate generations

  • Importance/Nature – big link in food chain, feed on plankton, corals provide home for most of the ocean’s species

  • Importance/Economy – coral, anemone

  • Vocabulary - medusa, polyp, mesoglea


Flatworms

Flatworms

  • Characteristics – 3 tissue layers, distinct head, many parasitic

  • Examples – free living (planarians), flukes, tapeworms

  • Support – still just water pressure

  • Movement – cilia & simple muscles

  • Food Getting – pharynx

  • Digestion – still only one opening parasites absorb food directly

  • Circulation – some, minor

  • Respiration – mostly diffusion

  • Nervous – nerve ladder, ganglia at head end

  • Reproduction – many are hermaphrodites

  • Importance/Nature – scavengers and parasites

  • Importance/Economy – flukes and tapeworms are serious infections


Biology review

The world's longest parasite is the tapeworm so the next question is 'What is the world's longest tapeworm?'

The longest tapeworm ever removed from a human came out of Sally Mae Wallace on September 05, 1991.

In all, doctors pulled 37 feet of tapeworm out of Sally Mae Wallace's body through her mouth.

If you find all of this disgusting, be glad you're not a whale as tapeworms in whales can grow up to 120 feet long.


Roundworms

Roundworms

  • Characteristics – 3 tissue layers, simple tube-within-a-tube body plan. all are small, hugely abundant, many are parasites

  • Examples – nematodes, rotifers, tardigrades

  • Support – H2O pressure, cuticle

  • Movement – longitudinal muscles allow for simple undulations

  • Food Getting – most are scavengers or parasites

  • Digestion – complete(mouth & anus), pharynx

  • Circulation – some

  • Respiration – still diffusion

  • Nervous – nerve ring

  • Reproduction – most have separate sexes

  • Importance/Nature – major decomposer and component of soil

  • Importance/Economy – parasites including hookworm


Segmented worms

Segmented worms

  • Characteristics – tube-within-a-tube plan. segmented body, much more complex than other worms (segmentation allows for specialization!!!!)

  • Examples – earthworms, marine worms, leeches

  • Support – muscles

  • Movement – both circular and longitudinal muscles control each segment

  • Food Getting – scavengers

  • Digestion – complete system including a crop, gizzard, etc.

  • Circulation – closed system with simple “hearts”

  • Respiration – some with gills, others use diffusion

  • Nervous – nerve cord and ganglia

  • Reproduction – most hermaphroditic

  • Importance/Nature – earthworms help the soil 3 ways; by recycling nutrients, fertilizing with their wastes and aerating the soil.

  • Importance/Economy – fish bait, medical leeches


Biology review

The largest earthworm is 22 feet long.

An acre of soil might have over 1,000,000 earthworms.


Molluscs

Molluscs

  • Characteristics – Soft body, shell producing mantle,radula. 2nd largest group of animals (150,000)

  • Examples – clam, snail, squid, octopus

  • Support – shell

  • Movement – foot or jet propulsion

  • Food Getting – scav, filter feeders and carnivores

  • Digestion – complete

  • Circulation – open system with heart and sinuses

  • Respiration – gills

  • Nervous – smartest invertebrates (octopus, not clam or snail)

  • Reproduction – separate sexes except the snail, usually external fertilization

  • Importance/Nature – fill many niches

  • Importance/Economy – major food source


Biology review

Reminders1. HOURS (4) due a week from Monday!2. Inverts test and Notebook, next block day!3. See the board for the test answers.4. Zoo & 1 video, or Farmstead and OP Arb.


Echinoderms

Echinoderms

  • Characteristics – water vascular system, spiny skin, radial symmetry, all bottom dwellers.

  • Examples – sea star, brittle star, sea cucumber, sea urchin

  • Support – spiny skin

  • Movement – water vascular system, tube feet

  • Food Getting – herbivores or carnivores,

  • Digestion – some can invert stomach, mouth on bottom, anus on top

  • Circulation – water vascular system

  • Respiration – water vascular system or gills

  • Nervous – decentralized, no “brain”

  • Reproduction – external, also can regenerate

  • Importance/Nature – scavengers, some carnivores, “Crown of Thorns” eat corals

  • Importance/Economy – urchins in development. Some are pests


Arthropods

Arthropods

  • Characteristics – Jointed appendages, segmented body plan

  • Examples – crustaceans, arachnids, centipedes, millipedes, insects

  • Support – exoskeleton of chitin, some strengthened with calcium

  • Movement – jointed legs are incredibly efficient

  • Food Getting – mouth parts adapted to various diets

  • Digestion – complete, often with crop, gastric caecae

  • Circulation – open system with heart and sinuses

  • Respiration – gills or trachea

  • Nervous – ventral nerve cord/brain

  • Reproduction – separate sexes often internal fertilization

  • Importance/Nature – fill many niches

  • Importance/Economy – huge impact on crop production, some are food source


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