Human factors in transportation
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Human Factors in Transportation. Dr. Wen Cheng, P.E., T.E., PTOE July 6 th ,2010 Cal Poly Pomona. Learning Objectives. Understand human variation and related design principles Understand the human factor impact in the mode of pedestrian, bicyclist, highway, rail transport and air transport

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Human Factors in Transportation

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Human Factors in Transportation

Dr. Wen Cheng, P.E., T.E., PTOE

July 6th,2010

Cal Poly Pomona


Learning Objectives

  • Understand human variation and related design principles

  • Understand the human factor impact in the mode of pedestrian, bicyclist, highway, rail transport and air transport

  • Describe how to conduct LOS analysis for walkways

  • Describe the application of PRT in engineering design


Integrated System


Human Variation


Personal difference

  • Gender

    • Male

    • Female

  • Age (driver example)

    • 5.1% 19 years of age and under

    • 9.9% 70 years of age and above

    • 85% in between

  • Many other factors

    • ……


Human requirements of transportation system

  • Primary

    • Increase of speed

    • Increase of range

    • Increase of carrying capacity

  • Secondary

    • Safety

    • Comfort and convenience


Design Principle


Pedestrian


Pedestrian Characteristics

  • Space needs (required for sidewalk, elevator capacity analysis)

    • Body ellipse

  • Walking speeds

    • Range from 2.5 to 6.0 sec/ft

    • Avg. 4.0 ft/sec

    • If >20% is elderly users, then design speed =_______ ft/sec


Some ped. accident facts

  • Most prevalent during morning and afternoon peak hours

  • Friday and Saturday accidents are over-represented and Sunday are under-represented

  • Adult ped. aged 45-65 are equally likely to occur at intersections or mid-block

  • Children ped. accidents mostly occur at mid-block or intersection?

  • Elderly ped accidents are more prevalent at mid-block or intersection?


Ped. facilities


3 types of design strategies for ped.

  • Segregation, via spatial separation of ped. and vehicular networks

  • Separation, via the allocation of either time (e.g. ?) or space (e.g. ?)within a shared ped.-vehicle facility

  • Integration, via shared use of facility


Sidewalks: except ped. or vehicular flows are very light, it is considered to be desirable


Refuge islands

  • Allow the ped. to cross street in two stages

  • Types:

    • Formal ped. refuges

    • Splitter islands at intersection approaches

    • Medians, etc.

  • Appropriate where:

    • Ped. crossing movements are concentrated, but overall # don’t warrant a ped. crossing


Ped. Refuge island


Curb Extension (i.e., choker)

  • Consist of local widening of sidewalk into the roadway

  • Typically at the expense of parking spaces

  • Reduce walking distance and ped. exposure


Ped. Barrier: in locations of high ped. activity, used to control ped. movement


Traffic signals

  • 3 types:

    • no explicit recognition: peds. have to observe vehicular signals

    • Concurrent phasing: “walk” / “do not walk” displace at the same time with green circle for vehicular traffic

    • Exclusive ped. phasing: no potential conflicts with any vehicular movements


Ped. Signal


Ped. crossings

  • Three types:

    • Zebra crossings=striped crossing + flashing signals (usu. yellow)

    • Pelican crossings=striped crossing + ped. operated signals

    • Marked crosswalk: indicate a place where ped. can cross, but w/o any provision for active control of motorists


Grade separated facilities

  • 2 types:

    • Underpass

    • Overpass

      Which one you prefer?

  • Appropriate:

    • When high speed/traffic flow

    • Where high ped. cccident problem


Ped. malls

  • The ultimate in segregation of ped. Provision is to have a ped.-only facility, like shopping malls.


Integrated facility

  • Woonerf, Dutch word for “living street”

  • Typically used only on residential streets.

  • Is a space shared by pedestrians, bicyclists, and low-speed (<10mph) motor vehicles.


Facility for the disabled

  • Tactile surface at ped. crossing

  • Audible ped. signals

  • Curb ramps

  • Raised guide strips

  • ADA design guidelines:

    • max. grade on ped. overpass ramp

    • location of signal post, etc.


Walkway LOS factors


Effective walkway width (WE)


Walkway LOS criteria


Bicyclist


Bicyclists at risk

  • Bicycling represents 5~15% of all urban trips

  • Bicyclists are over-represented in casualty accidents.

  • Bicyclists most at risk are the young

  • There is a significant over-representation of bicycle accidents at night time and in low-light conditions


Truck under-run barrier


Safety strategies for bicyclists

  • Protection (e.g., wearing helmets, use of brightly colored clothing, use of under-run barriers on trucks, etc.)

  • Legislation (e.g., sanctions on speeding, alcohol use, bicyclist conspicuity, etc.)

  • Road and traffic environment (e.g., traffic calming, the provision of bicyclist facilities, etc.)


Bicycle facilities

  • Shared roadway (no bikeway designation)

  • Signed shared roadway : with a designated bike route sign

  • Bike lane or bicycle lane: a portion of the roadway designated by striping or pavement markings

  • Separate bike path: exclusively used for bicyclist and separated from roadway


Bikeway Types


Bicycle users

  • Advanced bicyclists: experienced riders who can operate under most traffic conditions

  • Basic bicyclists: casual adult and teenage riders, they are less confident of their ability in traffic without special provisions for bicycles.

  • Children: preteen drivers whose roadway use is initially monitored by parents


Bicyclists


Automobile Drivers


Driver Information Need

Control level (info from basic senses)

Guidance level (info of constantly changing environmental)

Navigation Level (maps, directional signs, landmarks, etc.)

Physical operation of vehicle (steering, acceleration/deceleration)

Selecting speed and path

Trip planning, direction finding


Driver Perception & Reaction

  • Perception-reaction time (PRT)

    • Also called PIEV time (perception, intellection, emotion and volition)

  • Perception: Continuous collection of information through the senses

  • Identification: Interpretation of this information in the brain

  • Emotion: Reasoning, problem solving, and decision-making in response to the information

  • Volition: The resulting dynamics of both the driver (body movements to affect a response) and the vehicle


Effects of PRT

  • Car following

  • Yellow times at traffic signal (usu. add 1 sec to the yellow time for PRT)

  • Stopping sight distance (usu. 2.5 secs for PRT)

  • Decision sight distance

    • A stop on a rural road: PRT = 3.0 seconds

    • A stop on an urban road: PRT = 9.1 seconds

    • A speed, path, or direction change on a rural road: PRT = 10.2 to 11.2 seconds

    • A speed, path, or direction change on a suburban road: PRT = 12.1 to 12.9 seconds

    • A speed, path, or direction change on an urban road: PRT = 14.0 to 14.5 seconds


Human Sensor Process

  • Visual (Sight)

    • Legibility distance

    • Cone of Vision

    • Eye shifting and fixating

  • Movement

  • Equilibrium

  • Hearing

  • Others (smell, hunger, thirst……)


5 Principles to present info

  • Primacy: control level > guidance level > navigation level

  • Do not overload: Processing channel limitation

  • Do it before you get on the road: A priori knowledge

  • Spread Info

  • Do not surprise: avoid left exit, hidden dip, etc.


Design Examples Considering PRT


Example#1: a 2-lane road


Example#2: An urban intersection


Example#3: A freeway off ramp


Example#4: A work zone


Transit and Rail Passenger


Terminal design #1: space needed


Terminal design #2: Info. needed

International railroad pictographs


Terminal design #2: Info. needed

International signs at airports


Public transport vehicle design factors

  • Social factors: (level of crowding, presence of traveling companions, etc.)

  • Passenger characteristics: (proneness to sickness, physical and mental health, etc.)

  • Spatial factors: (seat width, leg room, standing space, etc.)


Air Transport Passenger


Terminal design #1: activity times


Terminal design #2: space needed


Air transport passenger cabin design

  • Spatial (cabin size, seating layout, etc.)

  • Physiological (temperatures, odors, lighting, noise, etc.)

  • Psychological (vista, space, safety, expectations, etc.)

  • Activity provision (providing eating, drinking, reading, watching films, etc.)


THANK YOU!!!


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