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What Symbols Mean

- R= Gas Constant
- M= Molarity
- = Molal freezing point
- = Molal boiling point
- K= Kelvin
- m= Molality
- m= Mass
- i= van’t Hoff Factor
- = Osmotic Pressure(not 3.14)
- r= Rate of Effusion
- N= Normality
- v= Velocity
- u= RMS speed

- = Change in Fusion
- = Change in Vaporization

Characteristics of Gases

- Gases are often referred to as vapors
- Gases expand to fill their container
- Gases are highly compressible
- (When Pressure is applied a gases volume decreases.)
- Gases form homogenous mixtures with one another regardless of their identities

Pressure

- PRESSURE- The force that that moves something in a general direction
- PRESSURE can be measured by the equation:
- Standard Atmospheric Pressure corresponds to atmospheric pressure at sea level

1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr =

1.0132510⁵ Pa = 101.325 kPa

The Gas Laws

- The PRESSURE-Volume Relationship: Boyle’s Law (The volume of a fixed quantity of gas maintained at constant temperature is inversely proportional to the temperature.)
- The Temperature-Volume Relationship: Charles’s Law (The volume of a fixed amount of gas maintained at constant PRESSURE is directly proportional to its absolute temperature.)
- The Quantity-Volume Relationship: Avogadro’s Law (Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and PRESSURE contain an equal number of molecules.)

The IDEAL-GAS Equation

- The IDEAL-GAS Equation refers to the types of gases that follow all of the gas laws
- The IDEAL-GAS Equation is written as where P=PRESSURE, V= Volume, n= Moles of Gas, R= Constant* (depending on what P is measured in) and T= TEMPERATURE(measured in Kelvin (K= °C+273))

*The R Constant is a stabilizing number that is used in the IDEAL-GAS Equation depending on the units that PRESSURE is measured in.

atm Gas Constant R is 0.0821 L atm mol

torr/ mmHg Gas Constant R is 64.4 torrmol

Molecular EFFUSION and DIFFUSION

- u Refers to the RMS Speed or the particle speeds for different gases.
- The lighter gas has a higher RMS Speed and the heavier gas has a slower RMs Speed.
- The difference of particle speeds have an effect on the RATE OF EFFUSION which is represented by the equation also known as Graham’s Law
- . Discovered by Thomas Graham the rate of effusion seems to be inversely proportional to the molar mass of a gas

REAL GASES

- IDEAL GASES stick to the gas laws
- REAL GASES follow the VAN DER WAAL’s equation
- a and b are constants that are unique to the gases.

DIPOLE-DIPOLE FORCES

- Neutral polar molecules attract each other when the positive end of one molecule is near the negative end of another
- These forces are only effective when polar molecules are very close together.

LONDON DISPERSION FORCES

- Intermolecular forces resulting from attractions between induced dipoles.

HYDROGEN BONDING

- The special type of intermolecular attraction between the hydrogen atom in a polar bond particularly (H–F, H–O or an H–N) and an unshared pair on a nearby, small, electronegative ion or atom.

PHASE DIAGRAMS

- A phase diagram is a way to summarize the way equilibrium can exist between phases of matter.
- The Critical Point is the highest point at which the element or compound can exist
- The triple point is where the element or compound can exist in all three stages of matter.

VAPOR POINT DEPRESSION

- When you add a substance to a solute is reduces the ability for vapor to escape.

BOILING POINT ELEVATION

- When you add a substance to a solute the boiling point will either get higher or lower.
- ex. so, if then, that gets added to the BP of the solute and the solute with the solvent is that.

FREEZING POINT DEPRESSION

- Freezing Point Depression refers to the substances freezing point. If a substance is added to a solute with a freezing point of 0°C and the substance has a freezing point of -4°C the new freezing point becomes -4°C

OSMOTIC PRESSURE

- OSMOSIS is the pressure need to push water through a barrier.
- When a substance doesn’t have a known osmotic pressure the equation
- refers to osmotic pressure it does not mean pi as in 3.14159265…..

Bibliography

- Brown LeMay Textbook
- The Internet (for pictures)

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