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A.P. Study Guide. Go Lions!. Lauren Crawford Mr. Tebow. What Symbols Mean. R= Gas Constant M = Molarity = M olal freezing point = M olal boiling point K= Kelvin m = Molality m= Mass i = van’t Hoff Factor = O smotic Pressure(not 3.14) r= Rate of Effusion N= Normality

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A p study guide

A.P. Study Guide

Go Lions!

Lauren Crawford

Mr. Tebow

What symbols mean
What Symbols Mean

  • R= Gas Constant

  • M= Molarity

  • = Molal freezing point

  • = Molal boiling point

  • K= Kelvin

  • m= Molality

  • m= Mass

  • i= van’t Hoff Factor

  • = Osmotic Pressure(not 3.14)

  • r= Rate of Effusion

  • N= Normality

  • v= Velocity

  • u= RMS speed

  • = Change in Fusion

  • = Change in Vaporization

Characteristics of gases
Characteristics of Gases

  • Gases are often referred to as vapors

  • Gases expand to fill their container

  • Gases are highly compressible

  • (When Pressure is applied a gases volume decreases.)

  • Gases form homogenous mixtures with one another regardless of their identities


  • PRESSURE- The force that that moves something in a general direction

  • PRESSURE can be measured by the equation:

  • Standard Atmospheric Pressure corresponds to atmospheric pressure at sea level

    1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr =

    1.0132510⁵ Pa = 101.325 kPa

The gas laws
The Gas Laws

  • The PRESSURE-Volume Relationship: Boyle’s Law (The volume of a fixed quantity of gas maintained at constant temperature is inversely proportional to the temperature.)

  • The Temperature-Volume Relationship: Charles’s Law (The volume of a fixed amount of gas maintained at constant PRESSURE is directly proportional to its absolute temperature.)

  • The Quantity-Volume Relationship: Avogadro’s Law (Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and PRESSURE contain an equal number of molecules.)

The ideal gas equation
The IDEAL-GAS Equation

  • The IDEAL-GAS Equation refers to the types of gases that follow all of the gas laws

  • The IDEAL-GAS Equation is written as where P=PRESSURE, V= Volume, n= Moles of Gas, R= Constant* (depending on what P is measured in) and T= TEMPERATURE(measured in Kelvin (K= °C+273))

    *The R Constant is a stabilizing number that is used in the IDEAL-GAS Equation depending on the units that PRESSURE is measured in.

    atm Gas Constant R is 0.0821 L atm mol

    torr/ mmHg Gas Constant R is 64.4 torrmol

Molecular effusion and diffusion

  • u Refers to the RMS Speed or the particle speeds for different gases.

  • The lighter gas has a higher RMS Speed and the heavier gas has a slower RMs Speed.

  • The difference of particle speeds have an effect on the RATE OF EFFUSION which is represented by the equation also known as Graham’s Law

  • . Discovered by Thomas Graham the rate of effusion seems to be inversely proportional to the molar mass of a gas

Real gases

  • IDEAL GASES stick to the gas laws

  • REAL GASES follow the VAN DER WAAL’s equation

  • a and b are constants that are unique to the gases.

Dipole dipole forces

  • Neutral polar molecules attract each other when the positive end of one molecule is near the negative end of another

  • These forces are only effective when polar molecules are very close together.

London dispersion forces

  • Intermolecular forces resulting from attractions between induced dipoles.

Hydrogen bonding

  • The special type of intermolecular attraction between the hydrogen atom in a polar bond particularly (H–F, H–O or an H–N) and an unshared pair on a nearby, small, electronegative ion or atom.

Phase diagrams

  • A phase diagram is a way to summarize the way equilibrium can exist between phases of matter.

  • The Critical Point is the highest point at which the element or compound can exist

  • The triple point is where the element or compound can exist in all three stages of matter.

Heat curves






Vapor point depression

  • When you add a substance to a solute is reduces the ability for vapor to escape.

Boiling point elevation

  • When you add a substance to a solute the boiling point will either get higher or lower.

  • ex. so, if then, that gets added to the BP of the solute and the solute with the solvent is that.

Freezing point depression

  • Freezing Point Depression refers to the substances freezing point. If a substance is added to a solute with a freezing point of 0°C and the substance has a freezing point of -4°C the new freezing point becomes -4°C

Osmotic pressure

  • OSMOSIS is the pressure need to push water through a barrier.

  • When a substance doesn’t have a known osmotic pressure the equation

  • refers to osmotic pressure it does not mean pi as in 3.14159265…..


  • Brown LeMay Textbook

  • The Internet (for pictures)