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A.P. Study Guide. Go Lions!. Lauren Crawford Mr. Tebow. What Symbols Mean. R= Gas Constant M = Molarity = M olal freezing point = M olal boiling point K= Kelvin m = Molality m= Mass i = van’t Hoff Factor = O smotic Pressure(not 3.14) r= Rate of Effusion N= Normality

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a p study guide

A.P. Study Guide

Go Lions!

Lauren Crawford

Mr. Tebow

what symbols mean
What Symbols Mean
  • R= Gas Constant
  • M= Molarity
  • = Molal freezing point
  • = Molal boiling point
  • K= Kelvin
  • m= Molality
  • m= Mass
  • i= van’t Hoff Factor
  • = Osmotic Pressure(not 3.14)
  • r= Rate of Effusion
  • N= Normality
  • v= Velocity
  • u= RMS speed
  • = Change in Fusion
  • = Change in Vaporization
characteristics of gases
Characteristics of Gases
  • Gases are often referred to as vapors
  • Gases expand to fill their container
  • Gases are highly compressible
  • (When Pressure is applied a gases volume decreases.)
  • Gases form homogenous mixtures with one another regardless of their identities
pressure
Pressure
  • PRESSURE- The force that that moves something in a general direction
  • PRESSURE can be measured by the equation:
  • Standard Atmospheric Pressure corresponds to atmospheric pressure at sea level

1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr =

1.0132510⁵ Pa = 101.325 kPa

the gas laws
The Gas Laws
  • The PRESSURE-Volume Relationship: Boyle’s Law (The volume of a fixed quantity of gas maintained at constant temperature is inversely proportional to the temperature.)
  • The Temperature-Volume Relationship: Charles’s Law (The volume of a fixed amount of gas maintained at constant PRESSURE is directly proportional to its absolute temperature.)
  • The Quantity-Volume Relationship: Avogadro’s Law (Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and PRESSURE contain an equal number of molecules.)
the ideal gas equation
The IDEAL-GAS Equation
  • The IDEAL-GAS Equation refers to the types of gases that follow all of the gas laws
  • The IDEAL-GAS Equation is written as where P=PRESSURE, V= Volume, n= Moles of Gas, R= Constant* (depending on what P is measured in) and T= TEMPERATURE(measured in Kelvin (K= °C+273))

*The R Constant is a stabilizing number that is used in the IDEAL-GAS Equation depending on the units that PRESSURE is measured in.

atm Gas Constant R is 0.0821 L atm mol

torr/ mmHg Gas Constant R is 64.4 torrmol

molecular effusion and diffusion
Molecular EFFUSION and DIFFUSION
  • u Refers to the RMS Speed or the particle speeds for different gases.
  • The lighter gas has a higher RMS Speed and the heavier gas has a slower RMs Speed.
  • The difference of particle speeds have an effect on the RATE OF EFFUSION which is represented by the equation also known as Graham’s Law
  • . Discovered by Thomas Graham the rate of effusion seems to be inversely proportional to the molar mass of a gas
real gases
REAL GASES
  • IDEAL GASES stick to the gas laws
  • REAL GASES follow the VAN DER WAAL’s equation
  • a and b are constants that are unique to the gases.
dipole dipole forces
DIPOLE-DIPOLE FORCES
  • Neutral polar molecules attract each other when the positive end of one molecule is near the negative end of another
  • These forces are only effective when polar molecules are very close together.
london dispersion forces
LONDON DISPERSION FORCES
  • Intermolecular forces resulting from attractions between induced dipoles.
hydrogen bonding
HYDROGEN BONDING
  • The special type of intermolecular attraction between the hydrogen atom in a polar bond particularly (H–F, H–O or an H–N) and an unshared pair on a nearby, small, electronegative ion or atom.
phase diagrams
PHASE DIAGRAMS
  • A phase diagram is a way to summarize the way equilibrium can exist between phases of matter.
  • The Critical Point is the highest point at which the element or compound can exist
  • The triple point is where the element or compound can exist in all three stages of matter.
heat curves
HEAT CURVES

Gas

Vaporization

Liquid

Melting

Solid

vapor point depression
VAPOR POINT DEPRESSION
  • When you add a substance to a solute is reduces the ability for vapor to escape.
boiling point elevation
BOILING POINT ELEVATION
  • When you add a substance to a solute the boiling point will either get higher or lower.
  • ex. so, if then, that gets added to the BP of the solute and the solute with the solvent is that.
freezing point depression
FREEZING POINT DEPRESSION
  • Freezing Point Depression refers to the substances freezing point. If a substance is added to a solute with a freezing point of 0°C and the substance has a freezing point of -4°C the new freezing point becomes -4°C
osmotic pressure
OSMOTIC PRESSURE
  • OSMOSIS is the pressure need to push water through a barrier.
  • When a substance doesn’t have a known osmotic pressure the equation
  • refers to osmotic pressure it does not mean pi as in 3.14159265…..
bibliography
Bibliography
  • Brown LeMay Textbook
  • The Internet (for pictures)
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