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Pluto: the next decade of discovery. Leslie Young Southwest Research Institute [email protected] I. Decade-scale surface-atmosphere interaction. 2005: 30.9 AU, 34° sub-solar lat 2015: 32.8 AU, 49° sub-solar lat Farther at 0.2 AU/year distance, More northerly at 1.5 °/year.

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pluto the next decade of discovery

Pluto: the next decade of discovery

Leslie Young

Southwest Research Institute

[email protected]

slide3

2005: 30.9 AU, 34° sub-solar lat

2015: 32.8 AU, 49° sub-solar lat

Farther at 0.2 AU/year distance,

More northerly at 1.5 °/year.

slide5

2005-2015, distance increases by 6%, insolation decreases by 12%. Simplest models have temperature decreasing by 3% (~1.2K),for the pressure nearly halving.

slide6

Sicardy et al. 2003, Nature 424

Elliot et al. 2003, Nature 424

slide7

Hansen and Paige fig 3 (high thermal inertia)

perihelion

1000

year

1200

Hansen and Paige 1996, Icarus 120

slide10

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide11

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide12

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide13

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide14

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide15

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide16

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide17

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide18

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide19

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide20

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide21

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide22

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide23

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide24

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide25

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide26

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide27

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide28

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide29

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide30

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide31

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide32

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide33

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide34

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide35

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide36

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide37

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide38

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide39

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide40

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide41

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide42

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide43

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide44

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide45

Darkening of ices following sublimation

Thermal inertia

Old, frost-covered winter pole coming into sunlight

slide47

1954.8

1964.4

1975.2

1982.2

Stern et al. 1988, Icarus 75

Buie et al. 1997, Icarus 125

1992/93

Changes in lightcurve mean and amplitude can be due to volatile transport or changing viewing.

slide48

Douté et al 1999, Icarus 142

CH4

CO

N2

Spectra on the surface absorption in reflected sunlight is diagnostic of the volatiles on Pluto\'s surface, including their grain size, mixing state, and temperature. 0.8-2.5 µm range includes N2, CH4, and CO. Shorter wavelengths include weak CH4 bands, and CH4 and tholins have absorption at 3.3 µm (See Olkin 55.02).

slide49

Hansen and Paige 1996, Icarus 120

1300 µm brightess temperature

60 µm brightness temperature

N2 frost temperature

1000

year

1200

slide50

Young 2004, BAAS

Occultations are the most sensitive and direct measure of changes in atmospheric pressure.

slide54

Grundy & Buie 2001, Icarus 153

Young 55.03, Buie 49.03

Young et al. 2001, AJ 121

Non-secular time-dependent effects on visible

albedo—rotation and possible opposition surges

slide55

1998

1995

Grundy and Buie 2001,Icarus 153.

Longitudinal change is much larger than the tentative secular variation (green vs. red dots) in CH4 1.66 µm band

slide56

Lellouch et al. 2000, Icarus 147

.6 Jy

.6 Jy

.3 Jy

.2 Jy

.8 Jy

.8 Jy

.3 Jy

0 Jy

Thermal rotational lightcurves have higher amplitudes thanthe expected seasonal change.

slide60

PERSI Remote Sensing Package

Objectives:

  • MVIC: Global geology and geomorphology. Stereo and terminator images. Refine radii and orbits. Search for rings and satellites. Search for clouds and hazes.
  • LEISA: Global composition maps, high resolution composition maps, temperatures from NIR bands.
  • ALICE: UV airglow and solar occultation to characterize Pluto’s neutral atmosphere. Search for ionosphere, H, H2, and CxHy. Search for Charon’s atmosphere.
slide61

REX Radio Experiment

  • Objectives:
  • Profiles of number density,
  • temperature, and pressure in
  • Pluto ’s atmosphere, including
  • conditions at surface.
  • •Search for Pluto’s ionosphere.
  • •Search for atmosphere and
  • ionosphere on Charon.
  • •Measure masses and radii of
  • Pluto and Charon, and masses
  • of flyby KBOs.
  • •Measure disk- averaged
  • microwave brightness
  • temperatures (4.2 cm) of
  • Pluto and Charon.
swap solar wind plasma sensor
SWAP Solar Wind Plasma Sensor
  • Objectives:
  • Slowdown of the solar wind,as a diagnostic of Pluto’s atmospheric escape rate.
  • Solar wind standoff
  • Solar wind speed
  • Solar wind density
  • Nature of interaction of solar wind and Pluto’s atmosphere (distinguish magnetic, cometary, and ionospheric interactions)
pepssi pluto energetic particle spectrometer
PEPSSI Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer
  • Objectives:
  • Measure energetic particles from Pluto’s upper atmosphere,as a diagnostic of Pluto’s atmospheric escape rate.
slide64

LORRI Long Range Reconnasance Imager

Objectives

• Far-side maps

• High-resolution closest approach images, including terminator and stereo imaging.

summary
Summary
  • We expect Pluto to undergo seasonal change in the next decade
  • Observations can constrain models of voalatile transport in the outer solar system
  • Beware spatial-temporal confusion!
  • Long time-base observations support and are supported by the planned New Horizons mission to Pluto
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