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EMR 6500: Survey Research. Dr. Chris L. S. Coryn Kristin A. Hobson Spring 2013. Agenda. Simple random sampling Crafting good questions Midterm examination Case Study #1 Case Study #2. Simple Random Sampling. Simple Random Sample.

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Emr 6500 survey research

EMR 6500:Survey Research

Dr. Chris L. S. Coryn

Kristin A. Hobson

Spring 2013


Agenda
Agenda

Simple random sampling

Crafting good questions

Midterm examination

Case Study #1

Case Study #2



Simple random sample
Simple Random Sample

Recall that a simple random sample is a sample of n elements from a population of N in which each possible sample of size n has the same probability of selection, namely

The probability of any element being selected is equal to the ratio of the sample size to the population size




Example for a population mean
Example for a Population Mean

If n = 200 was selected from N = 1,000 and the sample mean was = 94.22 with a sample variance of = 445.21, the bound on the error of estimation, B, would be



Example for a population total
Example for a Population Total

If n = 50 was selected from N = 750 and the sample mean was = 10.31 ( = 750(10.31) = 7,732.5) with a sample variance of = 2.25, the bound on the error of estimation, B, would be




Sample size for estimating population means1
Sample Size for Estimating Population Means and Totals

Often, the population variance, , is unknown

An approximate value of can be obtained by


Example for a population mean1
Example for a Population Mean and Totals

If N = 1,000 and the estimated range is 100, the sample size necessary to estimate with B = 3 would be

and


Example for a population mean2
Example for a Population Mean and Totals

If

where

then



Sample size for estimating population totals1
Sample Size for Estimating Population Totals and Totals

If N = 1,000 and = 36.00, the sample size necessary to estimate the population total, , with B = 1,000 would be

then




Example for a population proportion
Example for a Population Proportion and Totals

If n = 100 was selected from N = 300 and the sample proportion was = 0.15 the bound on the error of estimation, B, would be




Example for a population proportion1
Example for a Population Proportion Proportion

If N = 2,000 and the desired bound on the error of estimation, B, were 0.05, and no prior information is available to estimate , the necessary sample size would be




Issues to consider
Issues to Consider Proportion

What survey mode(s) will be used to ask the questions?

Is the question being repeated from another survey, and/or will answers be compared to previously collected data?

Will respondents be willing and motivated to answer accurately?

What type of information is the question asking for?


Choosing words and forming question
Choosing Words and Forming Question Proportion

  • Make sure the question applies to the respondent

  • Make sure the question is technically accurate

  • Ask one question at a time

  • Use simple and familiar words

  • Use specific and concrete words to specify the concepts clearly

  • Use as few words as possible to pose the question

  • Use complete sentences with simple sentence structures

  • Make sure “yes” means yes and “no” means no

  • Be sure the question specifies the response task


Visual presentation of survey questions
Visual Presentation of Survey Questions Proportion

Use darker and/or larger print for the question and lighter and/or smaller print for answer choices and answer spaces

Use spacing to create subgrouping within a question

Visually standardize all answer spaces or response options

Use visual design properties to emphasize elements that are important to the respondent and to deemphasize those that are not

Make sure words and visual elements that make up the question send consistent messages

Integrate special instructions into the question where they will be used rather than including them as freestanding entities

Separate optional or occasionally needed instructions from the question stem by font or symbol variation

Organize each question in a way that minimizes the need to reread portions in order to comprehend the response task

Choose line spacing, font, and text size to ensure the legibility of the text


Additional considerations
Additional Considerations Proportion

  • Abilities/aptitudes

    • Knowledge or skill

  • Attitudes

    • General and enduring evaluation of a person, object, or concept

  • Behaviors

    • Actions and mannerisms

  • Opinions/beliefs

    • Subjective beliefs that occur as a result of emotion or interpretation of facts






Visual analogs
Visual Analogs Proportion


Guttman scaling
Guttman Proportion Scaling

Individuals who endorse the first response should also endorse all others as they represent less extreme views


Partially closed
Partially Closed Proportion





Midterm examination1
Midterm Examination Proportion

  • The examination will consist of 50-75 multiple-choice items, scored as 0 or 1

  • You will have 2½ hours to complete the examination

  • You may use one page of notes (front and back) on 8½” X 11’’ paper

    • You will be required to determine necessary sample sizes and calculate bounds on the error of estimation for means, totals, and proportions

  • You may use a calculator or an Excel spreadsheet on a laptop computer

  • You cannot use the internet or textbooks


Case study 1
Case Study #1 Proportion


Case study activity
Case Study Activity Proportion

  • Write a focal question that addresses what proportion of foundations formally assess the effectiveness of their grant making activities

  • Determine the motivational features that you would use to encourage high quantity and quality of responses, with particular attention to:

    • How the perceived rewards for responding would be increased

    • How the perceived costs of responding would be reduced

    • How trust would be established so that people believe the rewards will outweigh the costs of responding

  • Determine the necessary sample size to estimate the population proportion, p, of foundations (N = 888) to address your focal question with a bound on the error of estimation of B= 0.05 and B = 0.10


Case study 2
Case Study #2 Proportion


Case study activity1
Case Study Activity Proportion

  • Consider the guidelines for “choosing words and framing questions” and “visual presentation of survey questions”

    • Are there any errors associated with the guidelines for choosing words and framing questions?

    • Are there any errors associated with the guidelines of the visual presentation of survey questions?


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