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Splash Screen. Chapter Introduction Section 1: Challenges of a New Century Section 2: New Global Communities Visual Summary. Chapter Menu. Who is affected by civil war?

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Splash Screen

Chapter Introduction

Section 1:Challenges of a New Century

Section 2:New Global Communities

Visual Summary

Chapter Menu

Who is affected by civil war?

Conflicts throughout the world have forced millions of people from their homes. Violent conflicts over border disputes in places like Ethiopia and Eritrea have forced thousands of people into refugee camps like the one shown in this photo. Refugees depend upon assistance from the international community in order to survive. In this chapter you will learn about efforts to solve global problems.

•What is the United Nations doing to resolve and prevent conflicts around the world?

•Give an example of a problem in another nation and explain how it affects the United States.

Chapter Intro

Chapter Intro

Chapter Intro

Challenges of a New Century

How has the Internet served to increase awareness of global issues?

Chapter Intro 1

New Global Communities

How have international organizations, such as the United Nations, taken the lead in solving world problems?

Chapter Intro 2

Chapter Preview-End

The BIG Idea

New TechnologiesToday’s societies face many challenges, and they must balance the costs and benefits of the technological revolution.

Section 1-Main Idea

Content Vocabulary

  • bioterrorism

  • ecology

  • deforestation

  • desertification

  • greenhouse effect

  • sustainable development

  • global economy

Academic Vocabulary

  • function

  • environment

Section 1-Key Terms

People and Events

  • Neil Armstrong

  • Green Revolution

  • Rachel Carson

  • Kyoto Protocol

  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights

  • Patriot Act

Section 1-Key Terms



Global warming is a real and viable threat to the world as we know it.



Section 1-Polling Question

Technological Revolution

The benefits of the technological revolution must be balanced against its costs.

Section 1

Technological Revolution (cont.)

  • New technological advancements such as satellites, cable television, fax machines, cell phones, and computers all helped create a global world.

  • Technology and computers:

  • 1948: IBM created the first computer with stored memory.

  • 1959: IBM marketed computers to businesses and industries.

Section 1

Technological Revolution (cont.)

  • 1971: The microprocessor was created and the personal computer was born.

  • 1972: The Internet and electronic mail were made available to the public.

Section 1

Technological Revolution (cont.)

  • Technology and space exploration:

  • In 1969, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed on the moon.

  • Satellites are used for weather information and communication signals.

  • In 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope was launched, giving detailed images of Earth, our solar system, and distant galaxies.

  • In 2004, NASA sent two rovers to Mars and plans to eventually land humans.

Section 1

Technological Revolution (cont.)

  • Technology and weapons:

  • Nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons have been used in bioterrorism.

  • In 2001, the U.S. experienced threats from anthrax-filled letters.

Section 1

Technological Revolution (cont.)

  • Technology and health care:

  • New medications enable doctors to treat both physical and mental illnesses.

  • Computer imaging allows doctors to perform difficult operations.

  • Organ transplants, valves, and pumps enable people to live longer.

  • Stem cell research, genetic engineering, and human cloning have sparked new ethical debates in the field of medical research.

Section 1

Technological Revolution (cont.)

  • Technology and agriculture:

  • The Green Revolution has promised high-yielding crops.

  • Concern over the use of chemical-and pesticides increased the demand for organic farming.

The Global AIDS Epidemic

Section 1





What is the Green Revolution?

A.The use of trees to combat global warming

B.The development of new strains of high-yielding crops

C.The use of holistic medicines

D.The discovery of new plants for use in medicines

Section 1

Environmental Crisis

Environmental damage endangers the world’s sustainable development.

Section 1

Environmental Crisis (cont.)

  • In 1962, Rachel Carson warned of the dangers chemicals and pesticides have on the environment.

  • Carson’s argument alarmed many scientists and gave rise to the new science of ecology.

Section 1

Environmental Crisis (cont.)

  • Population growth has affected the environment in three ways.

  • Deforestation: the clearing of forests to provide more farmland or timber

  • Desertification: the formation of degraded soil, turning semi-arid lands into nonproductive deserts.

  • Destruction of tropical rainforests: rainforests support 50 percent of the world’s plants and animals, remove carbon dioxide from the air, and return oxygen to the air

Section 1

Environmental Crisis (cont.)

  • Chemical wastes are also damaging the environment.

  • Chlorofluorocarbons are gases that destroy the ozone layer.

  • Pollution from factories causes acid rain.

  • Global warming is the result of the greenhouse effect.

Section 1

Environmental Crisis (cont.)

  • In 2002, 150 nations signed the Kyoto Protocol to work toward reducing emissions. The European Union and Japan ratified the treaty; the United States did not.

  • The United Nations has been encouraging sustainable development to help conserve all natural resources.

Section 1





What subject in Rachel Carson’s warnings gave rise to the new science of ecology?

A.Dangers of chemicals and pesticides

B.Global warming


D.Destruction of tropical forests

Section 1

Poverty and Civil Strife

Poverty, hunger, and civil strife continue to plague many developing nations.

Section 1

Poverty and Civil Strife (cont.)

  • A global economy developed after World War II when the production, distribution, and sale of goods reached a worldwide scale.

  • The global economy gave rise to a widening gap between rich and poor countries.

Section 1

Poverty and Civil Strife (cont.)

  • Rich/Developed Countries:

  • Well-organized industrial and agricultural systems

  • Advanced technology

  • Strong educational systems

  • Examples include the United States, Japan, Canada, and Germany

Section 1

Poverty and Civil Strife (cont.)

  • Poor/Developing Countries:

  • Primarily agricultural nations

  • Little technology

  • Rapid population growth

  • Examples include nations in Africa, Latin America, and Asia

Section 1

Poverty and Civil Strife (cont.)

  • World hunger is a global issue with an estimated 1 billion hungry people worldwide.

  • Poor soil, growing populations, economic factors, and natural disasters contribute to world hunger.

  • Civil wars often create food shortages by disrupting normal farming. Warring groups often try to limit access to food to destroy enemies.

Section 1

Poverty and Civil Strife (cont.)

  • Ethnic conflicts have involved genocide in Darfur and ethnic cleansing of Bosnian Muslims by Serbs.

Section 1





Which of the following is not a developed country?





Section 1

Political and Social Challenges

Not all nations guarantee their people basic human rights and equality.

Section 1

Political and Social Challenges (cont.)

  • In 1948, The United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which has helped to free political prisoners and bring economic and political change.

  • Human rights violations still occur worldwide.

  • People have been persecuted by repressive governments run by dictators or military regimes in Cuba, Chile, Myanmar, Iraq, Iran, and other countries.

Section 1

Political and Social Challenges (cont.)

  • Ethnic, religious, and racial hatred have led to the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people in Bosnia and Rwanda.

  • Military dictatorships or one-party governments still exist in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. South Korea, Taiwan, and the Philippines hold free elections.

  • Women in industrialized countries have steadily become equal to men, although men still hold more top positions in business and government.

Section 1

Political and Social Challenges (cont.)

  • In developing countries, some women are not considered equal. They are forced to be subordinate to men and are bound to their homes and families.

Section 1





Which organization has fought to free political prisoners and affirm human rights?

A.United Nations

B.American Red Cross

C.World Trade Organization

D.Kyoto Council

Section 1

Challenge of Terrorism

Acts of terrorism, now a part of modern society, have a worldwide effect.

Section 1

Challenge of Terrorism (cont.)

  • Terrorism became an increasing concern in the 1970s and 1980s when terrorist attacks gained worldwide media attention.

  • Terrorism is sometimes the act of militant nationalists who want separate states, such as the Irish Republican Army (IRA).

  • Terrorism can also be state-sponsored when governments such as Iraq, Syria, Cuba, and North Korea provide sanctuary and support to terrorist organizations.

Section 1

Challenge of Terrorism (cont.)

  • On September 11, 2001, the United States witnessed one of the most destructive and horrific acts of terrorism when planes were flown into the World Trade Center towers and the Pentagon. As a result, President George W. Bush promised to wage war on terrorism.

  • The Patriot Act was passed to help track down terrorists, but many U.S. citizens argue it is an invasion of privacy and constitutional rights.

Section 1

Challenge of Terrorism (cont.)

  • As a result of terrorism, airports around the world have increased their security measures.

  • Terrorism is complex and is rooted in various issues:

  • Clash between Western and Islamic cultures

  • Poverty and ignorance

  • Christian and Muslim hostility dating back to the Crusades

Section 1

Challenge of Terrorism (cont.)

  • Israeli-Palestinian conflict

  • U.S. support of the Middle East oil industry

Section 1





Which government agency was created by Congress in 2002 to coordinate efforts against terrorism in the United States?

A.Central Intelligence Agency

B.Department of Homeland Security

C.Federal Bureau of Investigation

D.Bureau of Terrorism and Firearms

Section 1

Section 1-End

The BIG Idea

Order and SecurityThe global economy and new global threats have prompted organizations and individuals to work on global problems.

Section 2-Main Idea

Content Vocabulary

  • peacekeeping forces

  • nuclear proliferation

  • globalization

  • multinational corporation

  • grassroots level

  • nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)

  • disarmament groups

Academic Vocabulary

  • migration

  • projection

Section 2-Key Terms

People and Events

  • Franklin Delano Roosevelt

  • World Bank

  • International Monetary Fund (IMF)

  • World Trade Organization (WTO)

  • Hazel Henderson

  • Elise Boulding

Section 2-Key Terms



Problems in one part of the world can affect people in other parts of the world.



Section 2-Polling Question

The United Nations

The United Nations focuses on international problems.

Section 2

The United Nations (cont.)

  • The United Nations (UN) was founded in 1945 at the end of World War II in 1945.

  • U.S. president Franklin Delano Roosevelt believed in an organization that would work for peace and human dignity.

  • The UN consists of a General Assembly, Security Council, a secretary-general, and five permanent membersU.S., Russia, Great Britain, China, and France.

Section 2

The United Nations (cont.)

  • Special agencies work under the UN and focus on economic and social issues as well as population growth and the environment.

  • The UN also provides peacekeeping forces from neutral member states that settle conflicts and aid in peace talks around the world.

  • The UN created the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1957 to stop nuclear proliferation.

Percentage of Population That Is Literate

Section 2





Which of the following countries is not one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council?





Section 2

Population and Migration

The ever-increasing world population affects the world economy.

Section 2

Population and Migration (cont.)

  • The UN estimates that the world’s population is expected to increase 37 percent over the next four decades.

  • Soon, the most populous nations in the world will be developing countries. By 2050, India will have surpassed China in population.

  • In 2000, European nations had the oldest median population of any region in the world.

  • Life expectancies are expected to rise worldwide after 2050.

Section 2

Population and Migration (cont.)

  • An older population requires the taxes of workers to cover the care of the elderly, placing a strain on the economy.

  • People migrate for various reasons.

  • political reasons

  • to seek refuge

  • civil wars

  • famine

Section 2

Population and Migration (cont.)

  • job opportunities

  • improved living conditions

Section 2





Which of the following is a reason an aging population can strain the economy?

A.Raises the birthrate

B.Workers’ taxes are increased

C.Increase in credit card use

D.Fewer people in the workforce

Section 2


International organizations and citizen groups work to solve global problems.

Section 2

Globalization (cont.)

  • Technology has led to globalization: the process by which people and nations have become more interdependent.

  • Globalization has led to cooperation between citizen groups and transnational organizations to work together to solve global problems.

  • The World Bank was created to provide grants, loans, and advice for economic development in developing countries.

Section 2

Globalization (cont.)

  • The International Monetary Fund (IMF) was developed to oversee the global financial system.

  • Both the World Bank and the IMF have been criticized for imposing Western practices on non-Western countries that only increase their poverty and debt.

  • Multinational corporations have also been developed as a result of globalization.

Section 2

Globalization (cont.)

  • Global trade is an important component of the global economy.

  • Many countries signed the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) to make trade easier between countries and later created the World Trade Organization(WTO).

Section 2

Globalization (cont.)

  • Groups of nations have formed together to create trading blocs.

  • European Union (EU)—the largest trade bloc worldwide

  • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

  • Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)

Section 2

Globalization (cont.)

  • Globalization has encouraged social movements to focus on the problems that affect people worldwide.

  • peace

  • the environment

  • child labor

  • women’s and men’s liberation

  • technology

Section 2

Globalization (cont.)

  • Social movements function on various levels:

  • Grassroots level—community wide

  • Transnational—draw membership from people in many countries

  • Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs)—usually represented at the UN

Section 2

Globalization (cont.)

  • Religious, peace, and disarmament groups work together to limit the size of military forces.

  • Hazel Henderson believes individuals can be powerful agents of change.

  • Elise Boulding believes NGOs can educate people to consider problems globally.

Section 2

Globalization (cont.)

  • Being an active citizen, learning from the past, and making good everyday choices will have a positive effect on the future of world civilization.

Section 2





What is the largest single trade bloc in the world?





Section 2

Section 2-End


  • Advanced communication and transportation systems are linking the world’s people.

  • New technologies for exploring space have increased our understanding of the universe.

  • Weapons of mass destruction, or WMDs, are a grim result of the technological revolution.

  • Breakthroughs in medicine and agriculture save lives, but some raise ethical questions.

VS 1


  • Deforestation, chemical wastes, oil spills, and nuclear accidents threaten the environment.

  • Nations must conserve natural resources to achieve sustainable development.

  • Poverty, hunger, and civil unrest plague many developing countries.

  • Human rights violations occur worldwide.

  • Terrorism has become part of modern society.

VS 2


  • The United Nations works for world peace and human dignity.

  • Nongovernmental organizations focus on issues such as disarmament, child welfare, and human rights.

  • Economic interdependence has given rise to international organizations to address issues affecting the global economy.

VS 3


Figure 1

Figure 2

Chapter Transparencies Menu

Chapter Transparency

Unit Time Line Transparency

Cause-and-Effect Transparency

Select a transparency to view.

Chapter Trans Menu

Chapter Trans

Unit Timeline Trans


DFS Trans 1

DFS Trans 2


the use of biological and chemical weapons in terrorist attacks



the study of the relationships between living things and their environment



the clearing of forests



formation of degraded soil, turning semi-arid lands into nonproductive deserts


greenhouse effect

global warming caused by the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere


sustainable development

economic development that does not limit the ability of future generations to meet their basic needs


global economy

an economy in which the production, distribution, and sale of goods take place on a worldwide scale, as in a multinational corporation






the complex factors—climate, soil, and living things—that act upon an ecological community and determine its form and survival


peacekeeping forces

military forces drawn from neutral members of the United Nations to settle conflicts and supervise truces


nuclear proliferation

the spread of nuclear weapons production technology and knowledge to nations



the movement toward a more integrated and interdependent world economy


multinational corporation

a company with divisions in more than two countries


grassroots level

community level


nongovernmental organization

an organization that has no government ties and works to address world problems


disarmament group

a nongovernmental group that works to limit the size of military forces and weapons stocks



the movement of people from one country, place, or locality to another



an estimate or a calculation


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