Sources of support for the papacy
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Sources of Support for the Papacy. Key source: F. W. Mattox, The Eternal Kingdom: A History of the Church of Christ , Delight, Arkansas: Gospel Light Publishing Company, 1961. Constantinople. In 300, Constantine moved his seat of government to Byzantium.

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Sources of support for the papacy

Sources of Support for the Papacy

Key source: F. W. Mattox, The Eternal Kingdom: A History of the Church of Christ, Delight, Arkansas: Gospel Light Publishing Company, 1961.


Constantinople

Constantinople

  • In 300, Constantine moved his seat of government to Byzantium.

    • The move was partly prompted by pressure from the Northern Barbaric tribes.

    • The city was completely rebuilt and renamed Constantinople.

    • This left a lesser official in Rome.


The barbaric tribes

The Barbaric Tribes

  • Coming in hordes, the Northern Barbaric tribes were successful in overrunning Western Europe.

    • In 476 the last of the Western Empires was overthrown.

    • Visigoths (415-711) controlled Spain and Southern France.

    • Ostrogoths (493-544) controlled Italy, while the Lombards (586-774) controlled Northern Italy.

    • Burgandians (443-534) controlled Southeastern France.

    • North Africa was controlled by the Vandals (429-533).


Paganizing the church

Paganizing the Church

  • All of these Teutonic tribes accepted some form of Christianity either before or after coming into the Roman Empire.

  • Clovis, king of the Franks (481-511), decided to be baptized and then commanded his whole army to be baptized.

  • In this way, pagans were “Christianized” and the church “paganized.”


Influencing the tribes

Influencing the Tribes

  • These Germanic tribes had accepted the Arian type of Christianity.

    • They found themselves in conflict with the theology of the Roman church upon conquering the Empire.

    • They felt inferior to the Romans because of their lack of culture and learning.

    • Gradually they came under the influence of the Roman church.

    • The Franks accepted Roman ideas and influenced other tribes as they became more powerful.


The need for learning and centralized authority

The Need for Learning and Centralized Authority

  • The invaders were illiterate.

    • The average person, even priests, could not read or write.

    • Learning was kept alive in some monasteries.

  • People longed for strong centralized authority to restrain lawlessness and restore order.

    • The Roman Bishop was a stabilizing influence in society.


The moslem invasion increased the pope s power

The Moslem Invasion Increased the Pope’s Power

  • The Moslem invasion of Western Europe necessitated a unification of forces.

    • Charles Martel (714-741), with the aid of the pope, repulsed them.

  • The pope used his position to achieve political unity and the ruler increased the pope’s spiritual power.

    • In 741, the pope blessed Charles’ son Pepin III.

    • Pepin III protected the pope and gave him the territory of the Lombards (756) marking the first time a pope had temporal rule, leading to the pope being called the Duke of Rome.


Charlemagne

Charlemagne

  • In 768, the kingdom was divided between Charlemagne and Carloman.

    • In 771, Carloman died.

  • Charlemagne defeated the Lombard king who had invaded Italy and went to Rome to enlarge the pope’s territory.

    • On Christmas day, 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne, proclaiming him crowned by God, Augustus.

    • In return, Charlemagne expanded the pope’s territory and assured his continuation as a secular ruler.


Charlemagne1

Charlemagne

  • Charlemagne assumed active leadership in the church by: directing missions, sponsoring ecclesiastical legislation, strengthening church government, supervising election of bishops, establishing schools and monasteries (large grants) and formulating educational standards.

  • He opposed the pope on worship of images.

  • He adopted a system of metropolitans.

  • He divided the empire into twenty-one chief districts, each with an archbishop.

  • He provided property for support of parish priests, made church property tax free and decreed church matters should be resolved in ecclesiastical courts.


The holy roman empire of the german nation

The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation

  • At his death, Charlemagne’s empire was divided between his three grandsons.

  • In 962, Otto the Great reunified the empire and was crowned Emperor of the Romans.

  • He donated large estates to the church and elevated certain bishops to feudal lordship.

  • He attempted to restore the Holy Roman Empire by relying on the church’s power.

  • Bishops gladly received appointments (investiture) from the emperor because he increased the church’s temporal territory and they reigned in both.


The holy roman empire of the german nation1

The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation

  • The Emperor was claiming to be God’s representative on earth.

  • During this period the Emperors appointed the popes.

  • In 1046, Henry III deposed 3 rival popes and appointed a German bishop head of the church.

  • The German Emperor following this procedure also appointed the next three popes.

  • The popes would not acknowledge subservience to the Emperor as the head of the church.


Feudalism

Feudalism

  • During the 11th, 12th and 13th Centuries, feudalism was the dominant social, political and economic order and no effective central government could be maintained.

  • Vassals gave service to their lords, who were vassals to kings, who were vassals to emperors, who were God’s vassals.

  • The pope claimed he was God’s vassal on earth and the emperor should receive authority from him.


The pseudo isidorian decretals

The Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals

  • During the 7th Century, a Spanish Archbishop named Isidore made the church in Germany acquainted with a number of important classical and patristic writings.

  • After his death (636), his reputation was used as authority for a forgery favoring the authority of the Roman bishop over political rulers.


The pseudo isidorian decretals1

The Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals

  • The forger set forth alleged decrees of unknown councils.

  • He also quoted letters supposedly written by Clement of Rome and Anacletus, who were bishops at Rome contemporary with the Apostles.


The donation of constantine

The “Donation of Constantine”

  • The document exalts the pope above all religious officials in the world.

  • It sets forth the Roman bishop as successor of Peter and Paul and grants him temporal authority.

  • The palace and jurisdiction over Rome and all Italy as well as the regions of the west were among the “donations.”

  • Its authority was unquestioned until the 15th Century when its authenticity was questioned by many eminent scholars and its falsity finally proved by Lorenzo Valla.


Nicholas i

Nicholas I

  • It is believed Nicholas I (858-867) was the first pope to use the Decretals to increase the spiritual authority of the papacy in the world.

    • He claimed supremacy, deposing and excommunicating Photius, the patriarch of Constantinople.

    • He humbled John, the archbishop of Ravenna, to complete submission.

    • He humbled Archbishop Hinkmar of Reims, forcing him to reinstate a deposed bishop.

    • He was successful in demanding King Lothair II of Loraine take back his divorced queen.


Holding on to power

Holding on to Power

  • The 17th Century reformed theologian Blondel proved the Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals were false.

  • Scholars of the Roman church acknowledged that they were false documents.

  • The Catholic Church refused to surrender the power gained though the papers were proven to be false.


Excommunication

Excommunication

  • By excommunication the priest could cut off any individual from receiving divine grace.

    • As the pope was God’s representative he could use the keys to bind or loose man’s sin.

    • Since this power came from the pope down through the hierarchy, each parish priest could prevent the disobedient from reaching God.

    • During the medieval period there was no question in the mind of the average person but that this was according to God’s will.

    • It also made one a social outcast and removed all privileges of citizenship.


Papal power over temporal rulers

Papal Power Over Temporal Rulers

  • The pope could use an interdict which required priests to refuse to serve in their priestly capacities.

    • If a king or prince was displeasing to the pope, the pope could retaliate by requiring all the priests in his territory to refuse to serve mass, perform marriages or bury the dead until the ruler repented.

  • The people were taught the sacrament had no value unless performed by properly ordained administrators.

    • Since ordination only found meaning through the pope, sacraments received their validity through papal authority.


Regular clergy under papal authority

Regular Clergy Under Papal Authority

  • The monastic orders were chartered by the pope.

    • Each monk was made to feel his dependence upon papal authority.

    • Obedience to superiors was strongly emphasized.

    • Gregory the Great became pope after serving as a Benedictine monk.

    • He strengthened that order, unified the monasteries and brought them together under his will.


Cardinals and legates

Cardinals and Legates

  • The college of cardinals grew from a small committee of priests in churches of Rome to an international organization.

    • By 1059, the Lateran council approved the expansion and cardinals are found in any country where the Catholic church is strong.

  • Papal legates helped form formal alliances with kings and feudal lords, further expanding the pope’s power.


The hierarchy

The Hierarchy

  • The hierarchy has set forth a literary defense of papal claims.

    • Scholasticism goes back to the schools as founded in the monasteries.

    • It is a system of philosophy which emanated from these schools and became the expression of faith for several centuries.

    • The Scholastics defended the truth of Catholic Christianity by cold logic.

    • They did not question Catholic dogma.


The scholastics

The Scholastics

  • Most of the Scholastics were monks from the various monasteries.

  • They spent their time systematizing and organizing the faith and doctrine of the church on the basis of Scripture interpreted in the light of tradition.

  • They analyzed grace as it is manifested through the sacraments and worked out a system of legalistic emphasis.

  • They strongly maintained the service of the priest was essential to the efficacy of the sacrament, thus making them serve in the mediatory position between God and man.


Results of scholasticism

Results of Scholasticism

  • The Lateran Council (1215) gave official sanction to the doctrine of transubstantiation and the requirement that every individual must make confession to the priest at least once per year.

  • They reorganized and systematized canon law to give absolute power to the pope.

  • They brought common people into strict adherence to the laws of the church, obedience to clergy and regular use of the sacraments.


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