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Shifting power in Islamic Society. Muhammad had no male heir to succeed; likewise he named no successor However, Muhammad’s closest friend Abu-Bakr filled the void He was known as the first Caliph or successor. Crisis!!!. The first four caliphs all knew Muhammad while he was alive

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Shifting power in Islamic Society

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Shifting power in islamic society

Shifting power in Islamic Society


Muhammad had no male heir to succeed; likewise he named no successor

However, Muhammad’s closest friend Abu-Bakr filled the void

He was known as the first Caliph or successor


Caliphs and expansion

The first four caliphsall knew Muhammad while he was alive

They were known as the “rightly guided”

Abu-Bakr sought to expand Islam through Jihad

Caliphs and Expansion


  • This means striving for Allah

  • Interpreted in two ways

    • Struggle against evil

    • Struggle against unbelievers


Fight for power

After the first 3 caliphs Muhammad’s cousin and son in law came to power

His name was Aliand was chosen to be the next caliph

However…. He was assassinated

Fight for power

New leaders

  • New powerful family came into leadership

  • The Umayyad's

    • They split the Muslim community in two

  • Why?

    • Moved capital from Mecca to Damascus

    • Lived in wealth and luxury

New leaders

Two groups

Majority of Muslims who followed the Umayyadin the interest of peace are called Sunni

The Muslims that believed that Caliph must be related the Muhammadare called Shi’awhich are called “the party”

Two Groups

Overthrown and expansion

The Umayyadcaliphate was overthrown and the Abbasidstook over

At the same time, in Spain, a Muslim state was built called Al-Andalus

The Berbers, Muslims from North Africa conquered Spain but were stopped at Zaragoza

Overthrown and Expansion

Reasons for expanse

  • Warfare and Trade

  • Persecuted people sought equality through Islam

  • Movement of Capitals

    • Mecca= Muhammad

    • Damascus = Abu-Bakr

    • Baghdad = Abbasids

Reasons for Expanse


  • Baghdad

    • Became the capital

    • Importance: Nearly 1 million people lived there



  • Places where scholars translates scientific and philosophical text

  • Importance:

    • Expanded Greek, Indian, and Persian Ideas


Arabic numerals

  • Math was the basis of all knowledge

  • Importance:

    • Used same system developed by Indus Civilization

    • Used experiments to actually measure their hypothesizes

Arabic Numerals


“the art of bringing together unknowns to match a known”

Try It: 42+ A= 25

Used Indian math

Possibly lead to the creation of inventions such as the telescope and microscope



  • Used Greek, Syrian, Arabic and Indian sources

  • Creations

    • Doctor’s manuals

    • Treatments for small pox and measles

    • Conducted surgeries

    • Wrote reports

      • Symptoms, previous conditions, and previous doctors



  • Texts

    • Translation then used experimentation to expand ideas

  • Architecture

    • Arches that blended other styles.

    • “Arches have no limits”

  • Art

    • Used geometric shapes and written language

    • Blends the logic/philosophical with religion



Pick a picture

Write down what you see

Write down what you think it means

Do pages 11-14


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