Shifting power in islamic society
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Shifting power in Islamic Society. Muhammad had no male heir to succeed; likewise he named no successor However, Muhammad’s closest friend Abu-Bakr filled the void He was known as the first Caliph or successor. Crisis!!!. The first four caliphs all knew Muhammad while he was alive

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Shifting power in Islamic Society

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Shifting power in islamic society

Shifting power in Islamic Society


Crisis

Muhammad had no male heir to succeed; likewise he named no successor

However, Muhammad’s closest friend Abu-Bakr filled the void

He was known as the first Caliph or successor

Crisis!!!


Caliphs and expansion

The first four caliphsall knew Muhammad while he was alive

They were known as the “rightly guided”

Abu-Bakr sought to expand Islam through Jihad

Caliphs and Expansion


Jihad

  • This means striving for Allah

  • Interpreted in two ways

    • Struggle against evil

    • Struggle against unbelievers

Jihad


Fight for power

After the first 3 caliphs Muhammad’s cousin and son in law came to power

His name was Aliand was chosen to be the next caliph

However…. He was assassinated

Fight for power


New leaders

  • New powerful family came into leadership

  • The Umayyad's

    • They split the Muslim community in two

  • Why?

    • Moved capital from Mecca to Damascus

    • Lived in wealth and luxury

New leaders


Two groups

Majority of Muslims who followed the Umayyadin the interest of peace are called Sunni

The Muslims that believed that Caliph must be related the Muhammadare called Shi’awhich are called “the party”

Two Groups


Overthrown and expansion

The Umayyadcaliphate was overthrown and the Abbasidstook over

At the same time, in Spain, a Muslim state was built called Al-Andalus

The Berbers, Muslims from North Africa conquered Spain but were stopped at Zaragoza

Overthrown and Expansion


Reasons for expanse

  • Warfare and Trade

  • Persecuted people sought equality through Islam

  • Movement of Capitals

    • Mecca= Muhammad

    • Damascus = Abu-Bakr

    • Baghdad = Abbasids

Reasons for Expanse


Contributions

  • Baghdad

    • Became the capital

    • Importance: Nearly 1 million people lived there

Contributions


Universities

  • Places where scholars translates scientific and philosophical text

  • Importance:

    • Expanded Greek, Indian, and Persian Ideas

Universities


Arabic numerals

  • Math was the basis of all knowledge

  • Importance:

    • Used same system developed by Indus Civilization

    • Used experiments to actually measure their hypothesizes

Arabic Numerals


Algebra

“the art of bringing together unknowns to match a known”

Try It: 42+ A= 25

Used Indian math

Possibly lead to the creation of inventions such as the telescope and microscope

Algebra


Medicine

  • Used Greek, Syrian, Arabic and Indian sources

  • Creations

    • Doctor’s manuals

    • Treatments for small pox and measles

    • Conducted surgeries

    • Wrote reports

      • Symptoms, previous conditions, and previous doctors

Medicine


Preservations

  • Texts

    • Translation then used experimentation to expand ideas

  • Architecture

    • Arches that blended other styles.

    • “Arches have no limits”

  • Art

    • Used geometric shapes and written language

    • Blends the logic/philosophical with religion

Preservations


Directions

Pick a picture

Write down what you see

Write down what you think it means

Do pages 11-14

Directions


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