origin of air pollution control regulating primary emissions from victorian times
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ORIGIN OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL REGULATING PRIMARY EMISSIONS FROM VICTORIAN TIMES. CONTROLLING AIR POLLUTION. Legislative Extramurality, zoning, timing Fuel controls Technical Chimney heights Combustion controls – burn your own smoke Filters, traps etc. BURN YOUR OWN SMOKE.

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controlling air pollution
CONTROLLING AIR POLLUTION
  • Legislative
    • Extramurality, zoning, timing
    • Fuel controls
  • Technical
    • Chimney heights
    • Combustion controls – burn your own smoke
    • Filters, traps etc
burn your own smoke
BURN YOUR OWN SMOKE
  • Benjamin Franklin advised Boulton and Watt
  • Smoke as waste fuel (lost profit)
  • Early attempts to control engine smoke ~1800 Manchester
lancashire boiler

RAKE IT OVER

LANCASHIRE BOILER

…and its skilled operation

19th c public health reform
19th C PUBLIC HEALTH REFORM
  • Huge transitions - portrayed heroically as individual determination: e.g in UK Chadwick, Farrar
  • Preoccupation with sewers, housing, but smoke clauses
  • Focussed on key professionals

Sanitary or smoke inspectors weak and subordinate to Medical Officer

...focus on organic disease

sanitary officers
SANITARY OFFICERS
  • 1823 early inspectors in Manchester Police Commissioners rarely found attentive and sober inspectors
  • Town Improvement Clauses Act 1847 authority to appoint a Medical Officer of Health and an Inspector of Nuisance
  • 1870\'s IoN and MOoH- throughout the country
inspector of nuisance
INSPECTOR OF NUISANCE
  • Inspectors point out of nuisances and maintain a journal report to Health Committee
  • Day to day implementation of sanitary policy
  • 1880\'s councils IoN a good man endowed with common sense
  • Lack of status and requisite skills attracted men who had failed in other walks of life

PROFESSIONALIZATION

P. BRIMBLECOMBE Origins of smoke inspection in Britain (circa 1900) Applied Environmental Science & Public Health 1, 55-62 (2003)

P. BRIMBLECOMBEEmergence of the sanitary inspector, The Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health,182-195 (2003)

professionalization
PROFESSIONALIZATION

key characteristic of the development

of Public Health in the late 19th C

  • Prof. Corfield 1885 lecture on Frontinus
  • Blyth 1890 appropriate examination and assistantship
  • MacMahon 1899 status of a sanitary officer ought to be that of a professional
  • Smoke inspectors
  • Specialization
women and uniforms
WOMEN AND UNIFORMS

Women gain equal number of certificates ~1900

Concern about clothing

long dresses in abattoirs (屠畜場)

buttons not brass (militaristic?)

Role beyond factories: could not climb ladders

Marriage and family

examination success 1899 1909
EXAMINATION SUCCESS 1899-1909

Male 62% Female70%

M

M

F

M

only 3 fails!

F

M/F

F

bedford college ladies college in bedford square
BEDFORD COLLEGELadies College in Bedford Square
  • Sanitary Course criticized for being too theoretical
  • Taught microscopy and bacteriology!

Models of hygienic sanitary appliances,

England, 1895

http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/broughttolife/objects/display.aspx?id=3883

nb famous bedford graduates from sanitary inspection course
NBFAMOUS BEDFORD GRADUATES from SANITARY INSPECTION COURSE

Deputy Chief Factories Inspector

Hilda Martindale

Head of Hygiene Battersea Polytechnic

Hilda Bideleaux

Head of the School of the Domestic Economy Tokyo

Sumi Miyakawa (Japan)

First woman factory inspector/MP

Kerstin Hesselgren (Sweden)

KERSTIN

HESSELGREN

women and health visiting
WOMEN AND HEALTH VISITING

Were not allowed to belong to Sanitary Inspectors Association

Health visitor role probably led to a reduction of status in early 20th C

coal smoke abatement society 1899 2011
COAL SMOKE ABATEMENT SOCIETY 1899-2011
  • Sir William Blake Richmond also Octavia Hill
  • NSAC, NSCA, NSCA&EP, EP(UK)

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-15924233

developing roles in local government
DEVELOPING ROLES IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT
  • 1883- Sanitary Inspectors
    • Association of Public Sanitary Inspectors
  • 1910- Sanitary Officers
    • 1921 Sanitary Officer formally recognised on passage of the Public Health (Officers) Act
  • 1950s- Public Health Inspector
  • 1970s- Environmental Health Officer
post wwi
POST WWI
  • Burning Bings- advocacy
  • Taylor, John (1914-1992) Smoke Menace (1937)
  • Gas and electricity
lo nox burner
LO-NOx BURNER
  • Key effect of temperature on the formation of NOx.
  • Surface combustion/radiant tile burners produce levels 60-70% less NOx.
  • John Joyce John Joyce of Bowin Technology, Australia, pioneered use high temperature steel mesh
low no x furnace

FUEL

AIR

SURF THOSE SOUND WAVES!

LOW NOX FURNACE

Controlling temperature: mixing of fuel and air is suppressed at the initial stage of combustion, and combustion progresses gently.

scrubbing
SCRUBBING
  • Fine stream ofwater absorbs waste gases
  • Expensive as you need an alkaline solution to absorb SO2

2NaOH + SO2  Na2SO3 + H2O

seawater as a scrubbing fluid
SEAWATER AS A SCRUBBING FLUID
  • Mid 20th C used the alkalinity of seawater as a cheap alternative
  • 2NaHCO3 + SO2  Na2SO3 + H2O + CO2

CHIMNEY HEIGHT

  • But lowers plume buoyancy
scrubbing with limestone
SCRUBBING WITH LIMESTONE

s=solid

g = gas

l=liquid

CaCO3(s) + SO2(g) → CaSO3(s) + CO2(g)

Can oxidize calcium sulphite to gypsum

CaSO3(s) + ½O2(g) + 2H2O(l) → CaSO4·2H2O(s)

Problem is that very large quantities involved…

http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/ch08/final/c08s13.pdf

wellman lord process
WELLMAN-LORD PROCESS

aq=aqueous

g = gas

l=liquid

Regenerative

In scrubber

Na2SO3(aq) + SO2(g) → 2NaHSO3(aq )

In Heater

2NaHSO3(aq ) → Na2SO3(aq) + SO2(g)

SO2 - is converted to elemental sulphur, sulphuric acid or liquid SO2.

fuels

Leonardo di Caprio,

Billy Crystal,

Harrison Ford and Susan Sarandon

FUELS
  • Methanol – logic of a new fuel for automobiles
  • Low volatility fuels
  • Zero Pollution Vehicles
  • Hybrid power cars
alternate fuels
ALTERNATE FUELS

Data gathered in the late 1980s…

gases lpg npg
GASES – LPG, NPG
  • Low molecular weight compounds
  • Sealed in a pressurised tank
  • Wide adoption and especially for fleets of buses
catalytic converters
CATALYTIC CONVERTERS
  • Three-way catalytic converter: platinum or rhodium on a ceramic or metallic base. Oxidises carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons to carbon dioxide and water and/or reduces oxides of nitrogen to nitrogen and oxygen gas.
  • Conflicting chemical reactions require a lambda probe to measure the residual oxygen in exhaust and adjust engine fuel-air ratio
  • Works at a fairly high temperature, so cold starts or stop start driving are a problem.
fuel volatility and reformulation
FUEL VOLATILITY AND REFORMULATION
  • Summertime commercial gasoline volatility reduced because VOC drives smog chemistry
  • Reformulated gasoline (RFG) is gasoline blended to burn cleaner and reduce smog-precursors, particularly carbon monoxide
  • RFG uses oxygenates MTBE and ethanol.
  • Only mandated in severe ozone areas
asia motorcycles as in sources lecture
ASIA – MOTORCYCLES as in SOURCES Lecture

Traditionally 2-stroke engines lots of organic matter and particles – with organic material

Electric power

Air power

lean burn
LEAN BURN
  • Engines mix more air with the fuel when full power is not needed, resulting in better fuel economy.
  • Engines fail strict NOx emission standards
  • Lean mixtures won’t ignite easily: use stratified-charge approach and air-fuel ratio varies through cylinder

Mitsubishi Vertical Vortex lean-burn engine can achieve complete combustion with an air-fuel ratio as 25:1 whereas conventional engines require 14.7:1 and give 3% better fuel economy at 40km/h http://www.derestricted.net/cyborgr/info/

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