NAZI. GERMANY. 1945. 1934. Unit 2D: Germany, 1919 – 1945. Source based exam. 1hr 45mins. 60marks total. 40% of final grade. Topics; Control and Opposition German Economy and Society Race and Youth Culture and Propaganda. Understanding the Assessment. Assessment.
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Unit 2D: Germany, 1919 – 1945
Source based exam.
40% of final grade.
Understanding the Assessment
Part 2: Control and Opposition
Key issue: How effectively did the Nazis control Germany in the years 1933–1945?
• The nature of the totalitarian state; the abolition of freedom, individual liberties and trade unions
• The nature of continuing opposition and resistance within the Third Reich
• The White Rose movement, the work of individuals such as Niemöller and Bonhoeffer
• The opposition of the military, the Stauffenberg bomb plot.
Part 3: German Economy and Society
Key issue: How much change did the Nazis bring about in German society?
• Changes in policies and attitudes to the role of women in German society, 1933–1945
• Nazi policies and attitudes towards religion and responses to this within Germany
• Nazism as social revolution and the impact of the regime on different social classes.
Key issue: How successful were the Nazis in rebuilding the German economy?
• The development of the economy and employment patterns in the 1930s
• Economic planning: preparation for war
• The response of the German people to economic changes in the 1930s
• The impact of the war upon the German economy and society.
Part 4: Race and Youth
Key issue: How successful were the Nazis in influencing young people?
• The appeal of Nazism to youth; the role of youth in National Socialism
• Youth movements in Nazi Germany
• Education in German schools and universities as an instrument of propaganda
• The extent and nature of youth resistance.
Key issue: How important in Germany were Nazis’ ideas on race?
• Nazi ideas: the belief in Aryan supremacy and the master race
• Racism in the Nazi state, the treatment of minority groups in society
• The persecution of the Jews and the Final Solution
• Reactions in Germany to these developments from different individuals and groups.
Part 5: Culture and Propaganda
Key issue: How did the Nazis change the cultural climate of Weimar Germany?
• The cultural climate of Weimar Germany as represented in entertainment and the arts, 1919–1933
• Reactions and responses to ‘Weimar culture’
• The effects of the Nazi regime on the cultural climate of Germany, 1933–1945
• The role and success of Nazi propaganda in sport, leisure, the media, entertainment and the arts
• The cult of the Führer.
What barrier remained to Hitler?
Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg 1847 – 1934 was a Prussian-German field marshal, statesman, and politician, and served as the second President of Germanyfrom 1925 to 1934.Hindenburg enjoyed a long career in the Prussian Army, retiring in 1911. He was recalled at the outbreak of World War I, and first came to national attention, at the age of 66, as the victor at Tannenberg in 1914. Hindenburg retired again in 1919, but returned to public life one more time in 1925 to be elected as the second President of Germany.
Paul von Hindenburg dies and Hitler becomes president as well as chancellor.2nd August, 1934
What effect will this have on Hitler?
Following Hindenburg's death, Hitler merged the presidency with the office of Chancellor under the title of Leader and Chancellor making himself Germany's Head of State and Head of government. This action effectively removed the last remedy by which Hitler could be legally removed from office—and with it, all institutional checks and balances on his power.
What has Hitler succeeded in creating?
Hitler had a plebiscite held on 19 August 1934, in which the German people were asked if they approved of Hitler merging the two offices. The Javote amounted to 90% of the vote.
“I will render unconditional obedience to the Fuhrer of the German Reich and people, Adolf Hitler, the supreme commander of the armed forces, and will be ready as a brave soldier to stake my life at any time for this oath.”
Germans who bought from Jews
Radical Christian Organisation
Anyone who criticised Hitler or the Nazi Party.
“Terror is the best political weapon for nothing drives people harder than a fear of sudden death.”
SS were responsible for running the concentration camps.
Secret police would spy on and arrest enemies of the state.
Everyone was scared of being arrested by the Gestapo and being put in a concentration camp.
Had strong local structure – Gauleiters responsible for “Gau”, divided into towns, streets & blocks.
Nazi Camps in Europe January 1944
You are imprisoned for up to six months doing hard physical labour.
When you are released you tell everybody what has happened to you
Gestapo Spies inform on you
You are woken up by the Gestapo at 1 am in the morning and told that you have 5 minutes to pack your bags.
You are handed over to the SS who run the concentration camps.
By signing this form you are giving your consent to be put into a concentration camp.
Days or maybe weeks later you are interviewed and asked to sign form D11
You are arrested and thrown into a cell at the police station
Evaluating the DAF
All other Trade unions had been banned.
A worker could not leave his job without the government’s permission.
Only government labour exchanges could arrange for a new job.
The DAF increased the number of hours worked from 60 to 72 per week (including overtime) by 1939.
Strikes were outlawed.
Any complaining was potentially dangerous. Remember what happened to the Work shy!
What does this suggest is the solution sought by the Nazi’s?
A Nazi Church?
The Pope signed a Concordat with Hitler. He agreed not to interfere in Nazi politics if the Church was left alone.
The “Reich Church”
The “Reich Church”
Reich Church symbol
Did the Nazi’s isolate the Church?
First they came for the communists,and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a communist.
Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a trade unionist.
Then they came for the Jews,and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a Jew.
Then they came for meand there was no one left to speak out for me.
How useful to a Historian would this source be?