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Wind. Wind. The Earth is in a constant battle to equalize its temperature It never succeeds, because our planet is hotter in some places than in others. Wind Patterns. Earth’s air is always on the move Cool air sinks Warm air rises Forms convection currents. Wind.

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Wind

Wind


Wind

Wind

  • The Earth is in a constant battle to equalize its temperature

  • It never succeeds, because our planet is hotter in some places than in others


Wind patterns

Wind Patterns

  • Earth’s air is always on the move

    • Cool air sinks

    • Warm air rises

  • Forms convectioncurrents


Wind

Wind

  • Wind is the movement of air as a result of different air pressure

  • The greater the pressure difference, the stronger the wind

  • Caused by unequal heating of the Earth


Pressure belts

Pressure Belts


Coriolis effect

Coriolis effect

Coriolis Animation

  • Global winds do not blow in straight lines

  • The earth rotates as wind blows, making it seem as if the winds are curving

  • Called the Coriolis effect


Coriolis effect1

Coriolis Effect

  • The wind blows in a curved path due to the rotation of the Earth

    • Northern Hemisphere - winds curve to the right

    • Southern Hemisphere - winds curve to the left

    • Coriolis Effect

Winds and the Coriolis Effect


Kinds of winds

Kinds of Winds

  • Local winds- generally move short distances and can blow from any direction

  • Global winds- are part of a pattern of air flow that moves across the Earth


Wind

Local Winds

  • Land breezes and sea breezes occur because of the differencesinheat of the land and the water

  • These differences create a convectioncurrent


Wind

Air Cools Down

Sea Breeze

Cold Air Sinks

  • During the day, the land heats up more quickly than the sea. Above the land, warm air rises and the wind blows toward the coast.

Warm Air Rises

Wind Blows Toward Coast

Warm Air Rises

Land Breeze

Air Cools Down

  • At night, the land cools down quickly while the sea stays warm. Above the sea, warm air rises and the wind blows away from the coast.

Cold Air Sinks

Wind Blows Away from the Coast


Wind

During the Day


Wind

At Night


Wind

Local Ocean Effects

L

H

L

H

50o

85o

63o

65o

  • Sea Breeze happens during the day when the land heats up more than the ocean

  • Land Breeze happens during the night when the land cools off more than the ocean


Global wind patterns

Global Wind Patterns

  • Winds carry heat north from Earth’s equator

  • Winds carry colder air south toward the equator


Global winds

Global Winds

  • Coriolis and other factors combine to produce a pattern of wind belts around the earth

  • Major wind belts:

    • Trade winds

    • Westerlies

    • Easterlies


Trade winds

Trade Winds

  • Blow at 30* latitude to the equator. (early sailors used the winds to sail from Europe to America)

    • When cold air sinks, produces high pressure

    • High pressure wants to move to an area of low pressure--the equator!!

  • These winds that are blowing toward the equator are deflected west because of the coriolis effect


Westerlies

Westerlies

  • Between 30* and 60* latitude

    • Flows towards the poles

    • Helped ships return to Europe.

  • Turned toward the east by Coriolilseffect

  • Blow from west to east--WESTERLIES


Easterlies

Easterlies

  • Between the poles and 60* latitude.

  • Cold air near poles sinks and flows back toward lower latitudes

  • Coriolis shifts these winds to west

  • Wind goes from East to west--EASTERLIES


Wind

Columbus and Global Scale Winds

Columbus was an expert sailor with a extraordinary knowledge of the global winds. He did not attempt to sail into the teeth of the westerly winds, but rather turned south and used the Easterly Trade Winds to drive his ships across the Ocean. On the return voyage, he headed north and then used the westerlies to propel his ships back to Europe, stopping at the Azores on the way for much needed repairs.


Doldrums

Doldrums

  • Near equator, between 0-30 degrees latitude

  • Rising air, low pressure

    • Cool air moves into area, warmed rapidly, and rises

    • Warms so fast, air doesn’t have an opportunity to move very far before it rises again.

  • Winds very weak near equator- DOLDRUMS


Doldrums1

Doldrums

All in a hot and copper sky,The bloody Sun, at noon,Right up above the mast did stand,No bigger than the Moon.

Day after day, day after day,We stuck, nor breath nor motion;As idle as a painted shipUpon a painted ocean.

- The Ancient Mariner


Horse latitudes

Horse Latitudes

Latitude and Precipitation

  • Between about 30° to 35° north and 30° to 35° south

  • Weak winds

  • Forms a belt of calm air

  • Contributes to deserts in this area


Prevailing wind patterns

Prevailing Wind Patterns


Global wind pattern

Global Wind Pattern

Global Wind Patterns


Rainforests of the world

Rainforests of the World

  • Most rainforests are near the equator because this is where the air is rising, creating clouds and rain.


Deserts of the world

Deserts of the World

Most deserts are at 30o

N and S Latitude because the air is sinking, dryingit out.


Wind

MoreDirect Sun Hot

0 o Equator

90 o S

60 o N

90 o N

30 o S

60 o S

30 o N


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