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PARTICIPATION. Rationale for Participation in Development :. Emerged internationally when UN announced that 1961 – 1970 as first development decade 1971 – 1980 as second development decade. Why?.

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Rationale for participation in development

Rationale for Participation in Development :

  • Emerged internationally when UN announced that

    1961 – 1970 as first development decade

    1971 – 1980 as second development decade



Because participation became one of the ingredients in development, to complement the approaches before 1960 which had been too economic oriented.

Other characteristics of development before the 60s were

Other characteristics of development before the 60s were:

  • top-down planning of development

  • No two-way communication between people and government

  • Unidirectional of development


Bottom up approach of development is necessary. This suggests the need for people participation.

Another two concepts emerged with participation

Another two concepts emerged with participation:

  • Mobilization  process to activate the use of human resources (before they were considered passive)

  • Intervention  government or authority participates in the planning of program with the agreement of people.

Characteristics of community participation

Characteristics of community participation:

  • Volunteer contribution

  • Involvement of community in decision making, implementation, evaluation and sharing the benefits of development.

  • Exercising the rights of community in problem identification and problem solving.


  • An effort to unite people in order to control the utilization of physical and human resources.

  • An effort to operationalise democracy in development

  • An educational process

  • Empowering the community

Definition of participation by ilo 1985

Definition of Participation, by ILO (1985):

  • Initiative of community and development planners in the process of decision-making, implementation of program, evaluation and sharing the benefits of development

Definition by ilo 1984

Definition by ILO (1984)

  • Mass sharing in decision-making

    Mass sharing in implementation

    Mass sharing of the benefits of


Definition by castillo 1986

Definition by Castillo (1986)

  • Membership in community organization

  • Contribution of personal labour, materials and monetary assistance to infrastructural, health and sanitation projects, etc.

  • Patronage of agency


4) Attendance at community assemblies – meeting, courses, workshops, dialogue

5) Cognitive participation – being the recipients of information about community activities.

Factors contributing to community participation

Factors Contributing to Community Participation:

  • Benefits expected to receive from participation – material gains and non-material gains

  • Availability of organization

    - vehicle for participation


- organization provides leadership

- CD programs are planned and


- organization provides structured

rules, procedures and


- used in channeling the resources

When life is being in danger

When life is being in danger

- People will react in a group when life is being threatened e.g. Due to flood, dengue fever, community work is easy to mobilize.

Feeling of responsibility

Feeling of responsibility

  • Related to altruism or unselfishness or concern for others

  • This is a social value of wanting to participate


    Involvement of parent in PTA

Actors in participation

Actors in Participation

  • Actors are those who participate in CD

  • Actors are many, involving many people  popular participation or people participation

  • Who are the actors, depending on the type of programs.

Take for example program healthy lifestyle for expecting mothers

Take for example Program Healthy Lifestyle for Expecting Mothers

i - Target group

(Mothers who are expecting babies), including family members such as husbands.

ii - Hospital personnel such as doctors,

specialists, nurses and support staff.

iii - District clinics and the staff


iv - Researchers (IMR, University)

vi - Personnel from the Ministry of


vii - Donor agency (if any) at international level e.g. WHO

viii - Community leaders such as VDSC (JKKK)

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