4. Cultured microglia and microglia cell lines stimulated with the HIV coat protein gp120 show incre...
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4. Cultured microglia and microglia cell lines stimulated with the HIV coat protein gp120 show increased PS2. Microglia treated with gp120 demonstrate a dose dependent increase in cell line PS2 expression on western blot (A).

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4. Cultured microglia and microglia cell lines stimulated with the HIV coat protein gp120 show increased PS2

  • Microglia treated with gp120 demonstrate a dose dependent increase in cell line PS2 expression on western blot (A).

  • Boiled gp120 (control) does not result in increased PS2 expression (B)

AD

Control

RAW cells

Primary Microglia

BV-2 cells

50kDa

PS2

50kDa

45kDa

actin

45kDa

400pM

boiled

400pM

0

200pM

0

200pM

+LPS

1000pM

800pM

400pM

200pM

0

HIV/gp120

PS2 antibody : Calbiochem Loop (1:1000)

5. PS2 holoprotein, NTF and CTF are all increased in response to gp120 stimulation in primary microglia

*

45

40

AD

  • Western blot analysis using antibody to the PS2 N-terminus demonstrates increased PS2 holoprotein and N-terminus after gp120 stimulation of primary microglia (A).

  • Antibody to C-terminus reveals similar enhancement of protein after gp120 treatment (B)

35

Ctrl

Control

gp120

B)

A)

Control

gp120

30

50 kDa

50

25

PS 2

% PS2 Positive Microglia

20

37 kDa

37

15

PS 2 NTF

10

5

25

PS 2 CTF

25 kDa

20

0

20 kDa

When normalized to actin and quantified using Image J densitometry software, PS2 holoprotein is increased by 41%, CTF by 92%

actin

actin

1. PS2 is markedly increased in glial cells in AD brain

gp120

gp120

Control

Control

A)

3. Microglia PS2 is increased in HIV Associated Dementia

A) PS2 (brown) immunolabeling is increased in the white matter (co-labeled with microglia marker CD68) of AD brain compared to age-matched control.

B) Similar increase in immunopositivity is not seen for PS1 (brown) in AD brain compared to control (D).

Both antibodies labeled neuron cell bodies in cortex.

A

A

D

D

-

-

P

P

S

S

2

2

C

C

o

o

n

n

t

t

r

r

o

o

l

l

-

-

P

P

S

S

2

2

PS2 N-terminus : APS 21 AbCam (12mg/ml), PS2 CTF : 2192 Cell Signaling (1:1000)

A)

A) Paraffin embedded autopsy cortical tissue from control and HAD colabeled for PS2 (brown) and microglia (purple) demonstrate enhanced PS2 immunoreactivity in HAD brain, particularly in activated microglia (arrows). Ramified microglia with little PS2 immunoreactivity are seen in control (arrowhead).

B) PS1 protein (brown, empty arrows) is not markedly increased in HAD compared to control.

HAD

Control

B)

C

C

o

o

n

n

t

t

r

r

o

o

l

l

-

-

P

P

S

S

1

1

A

A

D

D

-

-

P

P

S

S

1

1

B)

Specificity of PS2 antibody using PS2 KO mouse

Control

HAD

WT mouse

PS2 KO

PS2 antibody employed in (A) labels glial cells in wildtype mice but not PS2 KO mouse (tissue gift from Dr. Reuven Stein)

Samples are autopsy tissue paraffin embedded slides obtained from Harborview Medical Center Pathology Department. Slides underwent antigen retrieval by microwave heating. PS2 antibody : 2192 Cell Signaling (1:50), PS1 antibody : APS 11 ABR (75mg/ml), CD68 antibody: DAKO (1:750)

Samples are autopsy tissue paraffin embedded slides obtained from National NeuroAids Tissue Consortium. Slides underwent antigen retrieval by microwave heating. PS2 antibody : 2192 Cell Signaling (1:50), PS1 antibody : APS 11 ABR (75mg/ml), CD68 antibody: DAKO (1:750)

Presenilin 2 is Upregulated During Microglia Activation

S. Jayadev, H. Nguyen and G. Garden

Neurology, University of Washington, Seattle 905.11

  • INTRODUCTION

  • Mutations in Presenilin (PS) 1 and 2 cause familial Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) through undetermined mechanisms.

  • PS’s are intramembranous aspartyl proteases capable of cleaving amyloid precursor protein (APP), however their full function in normal and injured cell physiology is not yet known.

  • PS’s catalyze a growing number of identified substrates by regulated intramembranous proteolysis such as the developmental and cell fate regulator, Notch and the tyrosine kinase receptor ErbB4.

  • PS’s are cleaved into C-terminus (CTF) and N-terminus (NTF) fragments to form an active heterodimer enzyme.

  • Inflammation contributes to the neurodegenerative process in a number of human diseases including AD, Parkinson’s Disease, ALS and HIV Associated Dementia (HAD)

  • PS2 knockout mice have normal APP metabolism yet develop age-related mild pulmonary fibrosis a process associated with chronic inflammation in humans.

  • We hypothesize that PS2 participates in the CNS inflammatory process in human neurodegenerative disease.

2. Microglia from AD brain express enhanced PS2

A)

PS2 (brown) strongly labels microglia (purple) in AD brain (arrows) whereas microglia in control brain (arrowheads) do not demonstrate similar PS2 immunopositivity

A)

B)

B)

The proportion of microglia demonstrating PS2 immunoreactivity is significantly higher ( * = p<.001) in AD brain compared to control. 5 fields each were counted from 4 AD brains and 4 control brains.

PS2 antibody : 2192 Cell Signaling (1:50), CD68 antibody: DAKO (1:750)

  • CONCLUSIONS

  • Microglial PS2 is increased in the human neurodegenerative diseases AD and HIV Associated Dementia.

  • HIV glycoprotein gp120, a known activator of microglia, leads to enhanced expression of PS2 protein.

  • Hypotheses

  • PS2 mediated g-secretase activity or the PS2 holoprotein participates in intracellular signaling processes of microglia activation.

  • Inhibition of PS2 g-secretase activity or non-canonical PS2 function can interfere with microglial activation.


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