Weather & Climate
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Weather & Climate. Intro to Weather Clip. Weather by Brainpop. 1) What cycle is the basis of our weather? 2) What causes precipitation to occur? 3) Where do storms usually occur?. Weather. Temporary behavior of atmosphere (what’s going on at any certain time) Small geographic area

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Weather climate

Weather & Climate

Intro to Weather Clip


Weather by brainpop

Weather by Brainpop

1) What cycle is the basis of our weather?

2) What causes precipitation to occur?

3) Where do storms usually occur?


Weather

Weather

  • Temporary behavior of atmosphere (what’s going on at any certain time)

  • Small geographic area

  • Can change rapidly


Weather1

Weather

  • --The study of weather is meteorology

  • --Someone who studies weather is called a meteorologist


Climate

Climate

  • Long-term behavior of atmosphere (100+ years)

  • Large geographic area

  • Very slow to change


Climate types by brainpop

Climate Types by Brainpop

  • .What is climate?

  • .Where are tropical climates most likely to be?

  • .What does “arid” mean?


What factors affect weather climate

What Factors Affect Weather & Climate?

  • The Sun

  • The Water Cycle

  • The Atmosphere

  • The Ocean


How does the sun affect weather

How Does the Sun Affect Weather?

  • It warms the atmosphere & oceans

  • It creates climate zones

  • It keeps the water cycle going

  • It affects weather patterns


The water cycle

The Water Cycle

  • All the water on the planet is recycled in this manner!


Parts of the cycle

Parts of the Cycle

  • Evaporation—Water going from a liquid to a gas (gains energy from the sun)


Parts of the cycle1

Parts of the Cycle

  • *Transpiration—evaporation of water from/out of plants. Locate this on the diagram!

transpiration


Parts of the cycle2

Parts of the Cycle

  • Condensation—Water going from a gas to a liquid (cools or loses energy)

    • When this happens in the atmosphere, CLOUDS form.


Weather climate

Clouds by Brainpop


Parts of the cycle3

Parts of the Cycle

  • Precipitation—when water falls out the atmosphere. Forms when the water droplets in clouds become too heavy to stay up.


Precipitation

Precipitation

  • Liquid water = rain

  • Frozen water = snow or sleet or hail

Rain Clip


The water cycle1

The Water Cycle

Water Cycle by Brainpop


Weather climate

Water Cycle Advanced by Brainpop


The water cycle by brainpop

The Water Cycle by Brainpop

  • What process must happen for clouds to form?

  • What is “collection”?

  • Name one way to conserve water.


How does the atmosphere affect weather

How does the atmosphere affect weather?

  • The atmosphere is a mixture of gases that surrounds the Earth

  • Has five different layers; each has different properties

    • We’ll label them in just a minute…

  • Air Temperature and Pressure change with altitude

  • Weather occurs in the layer closest to Earth (troposphere)


Weather climate

Write in the labels!

Exosphere

Thermosphere

Ionosphere

Mesosphere

Ozone layer

Stratosphere

Troposphere


Weather climate

  • Earth’s Atmsophere by Brainpop

    • . What is ozone?

    • . What layer of the atmosphere does weather occur in?

    • . What 2 gases compose the most of Earth’s Atmosphere?


Air masses

Air Masses

  • = body of air with a certain temperature and moisture level

  • Can be warm or cold

  • Can contain a lot of moisture or not a lot of moisture


Fronts

Fronts

  • = places where air masses meet

  • 4 Types: Warm, Cold, Occluded, Stationary

  • Each kind can bring different kinds of weather


Weather climate

Occluded Front:

Stationary Front:


Weather climate

Science Saurus 221/222 & Reading a Weather Map Worksheet


How does air pressure affect weather

How does Air Pressure affect weather?

  • How much the earth’s atmosphere is pressing down on us

  • Measured with a BAROMETER

  • If it CHANGES, then new weather is on the way:

    • Falling Air Pressure = stormy weather coming

    • Rising Air Pressure = fair weather coming

    • Steady Air Pressure = no change is coming


Weather climate

Pressure Systems


Winds created from differences in air pressure

Winds = created from differences in air pressure

  • Moves from areas of HIGH to LOW pressure

  • Greater the difference in pressure, the FASTER the wind blows

  • Measured with wind vanes and anemometers or you can estimate with the Beaufort Wind Scale

ScienceSaurus 224/225


Weather climate

Beaufort Wind Scale


Global winds

Global Winds

  • Thousands of kilometers long; can cause weather to move in different directions

  • Jet stream, prevailing westerlies, doldrums, horse latitudes, trade winds

Big Winds Blowin’ Worksheet & Science Saurus Section 217


Global winds1

Global Winds

  • Caused by the temperature difference in different regions

    • Hot Tropical Regions—causes air to rise

    • Cold polar Regions—causes air to sink


Global winds2

Global Winds

  • Also affected by Earth’s Spin

    • Coriolis Effect = causes winds to curve to the right in the N. Hemisphere; to the left in the S. Hemisphere


Weather climate

Big Winds Blowin’ Worksheet


Winds by brainpop

Winds by Brainpop

  • . What does warm air do?

  • . What do you call winds that blow all the time in the same part of the world?

  • . What are jet streams?


Relative humidity

Relative Humidity

  • Measure of the amount of moisture in the air compared to what the air could hold

  • How “full” of water the air is

  • Expressed as %

  • 100% relative humidity = saturated air

Relative Humidity Test Applet

http://itg1.meteor.wisc.edu/wxwise/relhum/rhac.html


Relative humidity1

Relative Humidity

Controlled by temperature

1. Warm air holds more moisture than cool air (more space for water vapor between air molecules)

2. As air warms, relative humidity decreases

3. As air cools, relative humidity increases


Dew point

Dew Point

  • =Temperature at which the air is saturated (100% relative humidity)

    Several events can occur when the dew point temp. is reached:

    1. If dew point temp. is above freezing:

    a. water vapor condenses as liquid

    b. dew will form on surfaces


Dew point1

Dew Point

c. cloud droplets will form in air

2. If dew point temp. is below freezing:

a. water vapor condenses as a solid

b. frost on surfaces

c. snow (or hail) in the air


Humidity by brainpop

Humidity by Brainpop

  • . What single factor controls humidity?

  • . What temperature air can hold the most water molecules?

  • . What causes water to evaporate into the atmosphere?


R a i n b o w s

Rainbows

  • Caused by sunshine on raindrops

  • White light (all colors) is refracted (bent) into colors as it enters and exits the drop

  • To see a rainbow you must have the sun behind you and raindrops in the air

  • Diagram:


Weather climate

Rainbow by Brainpop


How does the ocean affect weather

How does the Ocean affect weather?

  • Ocean currents affect the temperature of the land they pass by

  • Cold ocean currents = cooling effect

  • Warm ocean currents = warming effect

  • Temperature changes affect pressure – which then creates WINDS

  • Winds blow this cooling or warming effect over the land

    http://earth.rice.edu/MTPE/hydro/hydrosphere/topics/Ocean_Atm_Circ_ElNino.mov


Weather climate

http://www.wunderground.com/MAR/


Weather climate

Science Saurus Sections 203-204-205-206


Weather climate

Advanced Weather by Brainpop

Violent Weather


Weather climate

Types of Storms


Thunderstorms

Thunderstorms

Requires a mature cumulonimbus cloud

Signs

  • Sudden reversal of wind direction

  • Noticeable increase in wind speed

  • Sudden drop in temperature


Weather climate

Thunderstorms

Possible weather:

a. heavy rains (flash floods)

b. lightning (forest fires)

c. thunder (frightens animals)

d. hail (crop damage)

e. tornadoes

f. strong, gusty winds

Thunderstorm by Brainpop


Safety rules

Safety Rules

  • Stay indoors

  • Prepare for lightning, strong winds

  • Listen on radio/TV for tornado watch/warning

  • Thunderstorms don’t last long


Lightning storm

Lightning Storm

Cumulonimbus cloud becomes electrically charged and ground below has opposite charge


Weather climate

  • Lightning stroke: flow of current thru air (a poor conductor) from the – to the +

  • Lightning can flow from cloud to ground, cloud to cloud, and from ground to cloud

  • Bright light is caused by glowing air molecules heated by the current

  • Lightning follows the path of least resistance (easiest way to positive)

  • Lightning rod offers lightning an easy, safe path to the ground (+)


Weather climate

Thunder is the shock wave caused by the explosive expansion of heated air

  • Sound travels @ about 1100 ft/sec in air

  • 5,280 ft in one mile

  • Distance from you to lightning = number of seconds between seeing the flash and hearing the thunder divided by 5.

    (5,280 ft / 1100 ft/sec = 5 seconds)


Types of lightning

Types of Lightning

Streak or bolt

  • Single or branched lines of light

  • Common in Puget Sound area


Weather climate

Sheet

a. shapeless flash over wide area

b. is cloud-to-cloud bolt hidden by the clouds

c. common in Puget Sound area


Weather climate

Other types of lightning

a. heat, ribbon, beaded (types of bolt)

b. ball (only other shape lightning can have)


Safety rules for lightning storms

Safety rules for lightning storms

  • Stay indoors

  • Stay away from anything that conducts electricity (stove, sink, telephone, TV)

  • Get out of the water and off of small boats

  • Stay away from open doors, windows, fireplaces

  • Stay in your car (very safe place to be)

  • Don’t stand under lone trees or in open places

  • Avoid hilltops

  • If your hair stands on end, or your skin tingles, drop to the ground but try to keep as little contact with the ground as possible


Weather climate

Lightning Strikes

(17 minutes)

Stories of people hit by lightning


Tornado a k a twister cyclone

Tornado(a.k.atwister, cyclone)

  • Counterclockwise column of rotating air extending from cumulonimbus cloud

  • Per square foot, is the most destructive atmospheric event

  • Rated by wind speed (F1 to F5)

  • “Tornado season” = April, May, June

  • Tornadoes that form over water are called “waterspouts”


Weather climate

  • Behavior of a tornado is unpredictable

    Typical tornado will:

    1. Occur between 3-7 pm

    2. Travel 4 miles

    3. Be 300-400 m wide

    4. Travel 25-40 mi/hour

    5. Have wind speeds up to 300 mi/hr

    6. Produce extremely low pressure

    7. Be dark due to debris picked up

Tornado by Brainpop


Safety rules1

Safety Rules

  • Rule #1: Take immediate action!

  • Move away from tornado’s path

Tornado’s path

Move away at a right angle


Weather climate

  • Lie flat in nearest ditch, etc.

  • At home

    a. open windows, doors

    b. seek shelter in basement or under heavy table in middle of house

On the trail of a tornado


Tropical cyclone

Tropical Cyclone

Nicknames

1. Atlantic: hurricane

2. SE Asia, Japan: typhoon

3. Australia: willy-willy

4. Indian Ocean: cyclone


Tropical cyclone1

Tropical Cyclone

  • Rated by wind speed (category 1 to 5)

  • Starts and grows over warm ocean water

  • Composed of bands of thunderstorms spiraling counterclockwise around a low pressure center


Characteristics

Characteristics

  • Several hundred miles wide

  • Last many days (even weeks)

  • Winds from 74-200 mi/hr

  • Contains an “eye”

    • Small region of low pressure

    • Surrounded by highest winds

    • Calm, peaceful, sunny weather

    • Last for about 1 hour as hurricane passes by

Hurricances by Brainpop


Safety rules2

Safety Rules

  • Prepare for high winds

  • Prepare for flooding (greatest source of damage)

    • Up to 20 in. of rain

    • Flooding by coastal water

  • 3. Prepare for thunderstorms

  • 4. Have on hand stored food, water, blankets, candles, matches, radio, etc.

  • 5. Seek shelter

Hurricanes Clip


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