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Weather & Climate. Intro to Weather Clip. Weather by Brainpop. 1) What cycle is the basis of our weather? 2) What causes precipitation to occur? 3) Where do storms usually occur?. Weather. Temporary behavior of atmosphere (what’s going on at any certain time) Small geographic area

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Weather & Climate

Intro to Weather Clip


Weather by brainpop
Weather by Brainpop

1) What cycle is the basis of our weather?

2) What causes precipitation to occur?

3) Where do storms usually occur?


Weather
Weather

  • Temporary behavior of atmosphere (what’s going on at any certain time)

  • Small geographic area

  • Can change rapidly


Weather1
Weather

  • --The study of weather is meteorology

  • --Someone who studies weather is called a meteorologist


Climate
Climate

  • Long-term behavior of atmosphere (100+ years)

  • Large geographic area

  • Very slow to change


Climate types by brainpop
Climate Types by Brainpop

  • .What is climate?

  • .Where are tropical climates most likely to be?

  • .What does “arid” mean?


What factors affect weather climate
What Factors Affect Weather & Climate?

  • The Sun

  • The Water Cycle

  • The Atmosphere

  • The Ocean


How does the sun affect weather
How Does the Sun Affect Weather?

  • It warms the atmosphere & oceans

  • It creates climate zones

  • It keeps the water cycle going

  • It affects weather patterns


The water cycle
The Water Cycle

  • All the water on the planet is recycled in this manner!


Parts of the cycle
Parts of the Cycle

  • Evaporation—Water going from a liquid to a gas (gains energy from the sun)


Parts of the cycle1
Parts of the Cycle

  • *Transpiration—evaporation of water from/out of plants. Locate this on the diagram!

transpiration


Parts of the cycle2
Parts of the Cycle

  • Condensation—Water going from a gas to a liquid (cools or loses energy)

    • When this happens in the atmosphere, CLOUDS form.



Parts of the cycle3
Parts of the Cycle

  • Precipitation—when water falls out the atmosphere. Forms when the water droplets in clouds become too heavy to stay up.


Precipitation
Precipitation

  • Liquid water = rain

  • Frozen water = snow or sleet or hail

Rain Clip


The water cycle1
The Water Cycle

Water Cycle by Brainpop



The water cycle by brainpop
The Water Cycle by Brainpop

  • What process must happen for clouds to form?

  • What is “collection”?

  • Name one way to conserve water.


How does the atmosphere affect weather
How does the atmosphere affect weather?

  • The atmosphere is a mixture of gases that surrounds the Earth

  • Has five different layers; each has different properties

    • We’ll label them in just a minute…

  • Air Temperature and Pressure change with altitude

  • Weather occurs in the layer closest to Earth (troposphere)


Write in the labels!

Exosphere

Thermosphere

Ionosphere

Mesosphere

Ozone layer

Stratosphere

Troposphere


  • Earth’s Atmsophere by Brainpop

    • . What is ozone?

    • . What layer of the atmosphere does weather occur in?

    • . What 2 gases compose the most of Earth’s Atmosphere?


Air masses
Air Masses

  • = body of air with a certain temperature and moisture level

  • Can be warm or cold

  • Can contain a lot of moisture or not a lot of moisture


Fronts
Fronts

  • = places where air masses meet

  • 4 Types: Warm, Cold, Occluded, Stationary

  • Each kind can bring different kinds of weather


Occluded Front:

Stationary Front:



How does air pressure affect weather
How does Air Pressure affect weather?

  • How much the earth’s atmosphere is pressing down on us

  • Measured with a BAROMETER

  • If it CHANGES, then new weather is on the way:

    • Falling Air Pressure = stormy weather coming

    • Rising Air Pressure = fair weather coming

    • Steady Air Pressure = no change is coming



Winds created from differences in air pressure
Winds = created from differences in air pressure

  • Moves from areas of HIGH to LOW pressure

  • Greater the difference in pressure, the FASTER the wind blows

  • Measured with wind vanes and anemometers or you can estimate with the Beaufort Wind Scale

ScienceSaurus 224/225



Global winds
Global Winds

  • Thousands of kilometers long; can cause weather to move in different directions

  • Jet stream, prevailing westerlies, doldrums, horse latitudes, trade winds

Big Winds Blowin’ Worksheet & Science Saurus Section 217


Global winds1
Global Winds

  • Caused by the temperature difference in different regions

    • Hot Tropical Regions—causes air to rise

    • Cold polar Regions—causes air to sink


Global winds2
Global Winds

  • Also affected by Earth’s Spin

    • Coriolis Effect = causes winds to curve to the right in the N. Hemisphere; to the left in the S. Hemisphere



Winds by brainpop
Winds by Brainpop

  • . What does warm air do?

  • . What do you call winds that blow all the time in the same part of the world?

  • . What are jet streams?


Relative humidity
Relative Humidity

  • Measure of the amount of moisture in the air compared to what the air could hold

  • How “full” of water the air is

  • Expressed as %

  • 100% relative humidity = saturated air

Relative Humidity Test Applet

http://itg1.meteor.wisc.edu/wxwise/relhum/rhac.html


Relative humidity1
Relative Humidity

Controlled by temperature

1. Warm air holds more moisture than cool air (more space for water vapor between air molecules)

2. As air warms, relative humidity decreases

3. As air cools, relative humidity increases


Dew point
Dew Point

  • =Temperature at which the air is saturated (100% relative humidity)

    Several events can occur when the dew point temp. is reached:

    1. If dew point temp. is above freezing:

    a. water vapor condenses as liquid

    b. dew will form on surfaces


Dew point1
Dew Point

c. cloud droplets will form in air

2. If dew point temp. is below freezing:

a. water vapor condenses as a solid

b. frost on surfaces

c. snow (or hail) in the air


Humidity by brainpop
Humidity by Brainpop

  • . What single factor controls humidity?

  • . What temperature air can hold the most water molecules?

  • . What causes water to evaporate into the atmosphere?


R a i n b o w s
Rainbows

  • Caused by sunshine on raindrops

  • White light (all colors) is refracted (bent) into colors as it enters and exits the drop

  • To see a rainbow you must have the sun behind you and raindrops in the air

  • Diagram:



How does the ocean affect weather
How does the Ocean affect weather?

  • Ocean currents affect the temperature of the land they pass by

  • Cold ocean currents = cooling effect

  • Warm ocean currents = warming effect

  • Temperature changes affect pressure – which then creates WINDS

  • Winds blow this cooling or warming effect over the land

    http://earth.rice.edu/MTPE/hydro/hydrosphere/topics/Ocean_Atm_Circ_ElNino.mov






Thunderstorms
Thunderstorms

Requires a mature cumulonimbus cloud

Signs

  • Sudden reversal of wind direction

  • Noticeable increase in wind speed

  • Sudden drop in temperature


Thunderstorms

Possible weather:

a. heavy rains (flash floods)

b. lightning (forest fires)

c. thunder (frightens animals)

d. hail (crop damage)

e. tornadoes

f. strong, gusty winds

Thunderstorm by Brainpop


Safety rules
Safety Rules

  • Stay indoors

  • Prepare for lightning, strong winds

  • Listen on radio/TV for tornado watch/warning

  • Thunderstorms don’t last long


Lightning storm
Lightning Storm

Cumulonimbus cloud becomes electrically charged and ground below has opposite charge


  • Lightning stroke: flow of current thru air (a poor conductor) from the – to the +

  • Lightning can flow from cloud to ground, cloud to cloud, and from ground to cloud

  • Bright light is caused by glowing air molecules heated by the current

  • Lightning follows the path of least resistance (easiest way to positive)

  • Lightning rod offers lightning an easy, safe path to the ground (+)


Thunder is the shock wave caused by the explosive expansion of heated air

  • Sound travels @ about 1100 ft/sec in air

  • 5,280 ft in one mile

  • Distance from you to lightning = number of seconds between seeing the flash and hearing the thunder divided by 5.

    (5,280 ft / 1100 ft/sec = 5 seconds)


Types of lightning
Types of Lightning

Streak or bolt

  • Single or branched lines of light

  • Common in Puget Sound area


Sheet

a. shapeless flash over wide area

b. is cloud-to-cloud bolt hidden by the clouds

c. common in Puget Sound area


Other types of lightning

a. heat, ribbon, beaded (types of bolt)

b. ball (only other shape lightning can have)


Safety rules for lightning storms
Safety rules for lightning storms

  • Stay indoors

  • Stay away from anything that conducts electricity (stove, sink, telephone, TV)

  • Get out of the water and off of small boats

  • Stay away from open doors, windows, fireplaces

  • Stay in your car (very safe place to be)

  • Don’t stand under lone trees or in open places

  • Avoid hilltops

  • If your hair stands on end, or your skin tingles, drop to the ground but try to keep as little contact with the ground as possible


Lightning Strikes

(17 minutes)

Stories of people hit by lightning


Tornado a k a twister cyclone
Tornado(a.k.atwister, cyclone)

  • Counterclockwise column of rotating air extending from cumulonimbus cloud

  • Per square foot, is the most destructive atmospheric event

  • Rated by wind speed (F1 to F5)

  • “Tornado season” = April, May, June

  • Tornadoes that form over water are called “waterspouts”


  • Behavior of a tornado is unpredictable

    Typical tornado will:

    1. Occur between 3-7 pm

    2. Travel 4 miles

    3. Be 300-400 m wide

    4. Travel 25-40 mi/hour

    5. Have wind speeds up to 300 mi/hr

    6. Produce extremely low pressure

    7. Be dark due to debris picked up

Tornado by Brainpop


Safety rules1
Safety Rules

  • Rule #1: Take immediate action!

  • Move away from tornado’s path

Tornado’s path

Move away at a right angle


On the trail of a tornado


Tropical cyclone
Tropical Cyclone

Nicknames

1. Atlantic: hurricane

2. SE Asia, Japan: typhoon

3. Australia: willy-willy

4. Indian Ocean: cyclone


Tropical cyclone1
Tropical Cyclone

  • Rated by wind speed (category 1 to 5)

  • Starts and grows over warm ocean water

  • Composed of bands of thunderstorms spiraling counterclockwise around a low pressure center


Characteristics
Characteristics

  • Several hundred miles wide

  • Last many days (even weeks)

  • Winds from 74-200 mi/hr

  • Contains an “eye”

    • Small region of low pressure

    • Surrounded by highest winds

    • Calm, peaceful, sunny weather

    • Last for about 1 hour as hurricane passes by

Hurricances by Brainpop


Safety rules2
Safety Rules

  • Prepare for high winds

  • Prepare for flooding (greatest source of damage)

    • Up to 20 in. of rain

    • Flooding by coastal water

  • 3. Prepare for thunderstorms

  • 4. Have on hand stored food, water, blankets, candles, matches, radio, etc.

  • 5. Seek shelter

Hurricanes Clip


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