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Information Gathered from Hugh Ross’s Books about God of the Universe as well as the Science that runs the Universe. (1) The Fingerprint of God: Recent Scientific Discoveries Reveal the Unmistakable Identity of the Creator

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Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Information Gathered from Hugh Ross’s

Books about God of the Universe as well

as the Science that runs the Universe

(1) The Fingerprint of God: Recent Scientific Discoveries Reveal

the Unmistakable Identity of the Creator

(2) The Genesis Question: Scientific Advances and the Accuracy

of Genesis

(3) Creation and Time: A Biblical and Scientific Perspective on

the Creation-Date Controversy

(4) The Creator and the Cosmos: How the latest Scientific

Discoveries Reveal God

(5) Beyond The Cosmos: The Extra-Dimensionality of God:

What Recent Discoveries in

Astrophysics Reveal about the Glory

and Love of God


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

The Six Genesis Creation Days – Day One

Genesis 1:1-5

In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. And the

earth was formless and void, and darkness was over the surface of

the deep; and the Spirit of God was moving over the surface of the

waters. Then God said, “Let there be light”; and there was light. And

God saw that the light was good; and God separated the light from

the darkness. And God called the light day, and the darkness He

called night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day.

Initially, there was nothing, and then light was created. As it moved

out, away from the creation point, it became mass as electromagnetic

radiation was converted into mass in the form of the elementary particles

such as electrons, protons and neutrons. This is the “Big Bang” event

that is believed to have occurred at the beginning of time. As things

were formed, they all began moving away from the creation point and

outward in three dimensions. All scientists agree that Life on planet

earth originated in the oceans, where the Spirit of God was hovering, or

moving over the waters.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

The Six Genesis Creation Days – Day Two

Genesis 1:6-8

Then God said, “Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters, and

let it separate the waters from the waters.” And God made the expanse,

and separated the waters which were below the expanse from the waters

which were above the expanse; and it was so. And God called the expanse

heaven. And there was evening and there was morning, a second day.

This is the beginning of the hydrological cycle that dominated the weather

on Earth, the condensation and evaporation of water gives the storms their

energy.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

The Six Genesis Creation Days – Day Three

Genesis 1:9-13

Then God said, “Let the earth sprout vegetation, plants yielding seed, and

fruit trees bearing after their kind, with seed in them, on the earth”; and it

was so. And the earth brought forth vegetation, plants yielding seed after

their kind, and trees bearing fruit, with seed in them, after their kind; and

God saw that it was good. And there was evening and there was morning,

a third day.

This is the proper order of how life began on earth. There were plants before

any animals could be present as they were the food for the animals, which

initially were all herbivores living on plants. Note that it specifically stated that

seeds were present so that the plants could reproduce and spread after their

kind, in other words one species of plant could not change into another

species of plant.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

The Six Genesis Creation Days – Day Four

Genesis 1:14-19

Then God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to

separate the day from the night, and let them be for signs, and for seasons,

and for days and years; and let them be for lights in the expanse of the

heavens to give light on the earth”; and it was so. And God made the two

great lights, the greater light to govern the day, and the lesser light to govern

the night; He made the stars also. And God placed them in the expanse of

the heavens to give light on the earth, and to govern the day and the night,

and to separate the light from the darkness; and God saw that it was good.

And there was evening and there was morning, a fourth day.

The sun and stars had been created earlier, but from our viewing point on

earth nothing could be seen due to the heavy dense atmosphere. So at this

point the atmosphere was made transparent so that sun light could reach

the surface where plants needed the sun light for photosynthesis. The moon

was also created at this point, and that explains the atmosphere clearing,

from the collision that formed the moon. This would place the timing of the

fourth day about 4.25 billion years ago (slide 7).


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

The Six Genesis Creation Days – Day Five

Genesis 1:20-23

Then God said, “Let the waters teem with swarms of living creatures, and

let birds fly above the earth in the open expanse of the heavens.” And God

created the great sea monsters, and every living creature that moves, with

which the waters swarmed after their kind, and every winged bird after its

kind; and God saw that it was good. And God blessed them, saying, “Be

fruitful and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply

on the earth.” And there was evening and there was morning, a fifth day.

We know that life began in the oceans not on land, so it makes sense that

God would create creatures in the oceans first as well. The Great Sea

Monsters could be the dinosaurs, as they began first in the oceans, and

then moved on to land. When God saw how much they ate, and dominated

the earth, God did not want them to destroy His prized creation, so he

exterminated them by Flood Basalt volcanism (Daccon Flood Basalts, 65 MYr).

Note that with creatures of the sea God used the same wording, that they

would reproduce “after their kind”.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

The Six Genesis Creation Days – Day Six

Genesis 1:24-31

Then God said, “Let the earth bring forth living creatures after their kind:

cattle and creeping things and beasts of the earth after their kind”; and it

was so. And God made the beasts of the earth after their kind, and the cattle

after their kind, and everything that creeps on the ground after its kind; and

God saw that it was good. Then God said, “Let Us make man in Our image,

according to Our likeness; and let them rule over the fish of the sea and over

the birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the earth, and over every

creeping thing that creeps on the earth.” And God created man in His own

image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them.

And God blessed them; and God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply, and

fill the earth, and subdue it; and rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds

of the sky, and over every living thing that moves on the earth.” Then God

said, “Behold, I have given you every plant yielding seed that is on the surface

of all the earth, and every tree which has fruit yielding seed; it shall be food

for you; and to every beast of the earth and to every bird of the sky and every

green plant for food”, and it was so. And God saw all that He made, and

behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the

Sixth day.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

The Six Genesis Creation Days – Day Six

Animals were created before man, who was introduced later to rule over and

control the other animals. Man has been responsible for many species going

extinct and is not controlled or threatened by any animal, Man is in charge of

Planet Earth. This is an assumed responsibility, and it is hard to live up to, and

as a species, we have failed!


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

The Six Genesis Creation Days – Day Seven

Genesis 2:1-4

Thus the heavens and the earth were completed, and all their hosts. And by

the seventh day God completed His work which He had done; and He rested

on the seventh day from all His work which He had done. Then God blessed

the seventh day and sanctified it, because in it He rested from all His work

which God had created and made. This is the account of the heavens and

the earth when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made earth

and heaven.

Biologically we find that we are not discovering any new species, which

would agree with the statement that God’s creating of different life forms has

ceased completely. All we see are slight variations occurring to compensate

for changes in our environment, which is what Darwin’s idea of evolution

states. We are still in the seventh day, which also tells us that the use of Yom

did mean long time periods not 24 hr days. God is waiting for his return to

Earth his creation; this will occur at the return of Jesus as foretold in the

book of revelation.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Young or Old Earth?

In 1642 Cambridge University Vice-Chancellor John Lightfoot calculated a date for

the creation of the universe of September 17, 3928 BC, based upon the genealogies

in Genesis, Exodus, 1 and 2 Kings, and 1 and 2 Chronicles. This was corrected in

1650 by James Ussher, an Anglican archbishop in Ireland, making it

October 3, 4004 BC. These dates and time scale were widely backed by the church

for many years, driving many scientists and other people away from God!

In 1961 Henry Morris, a civil engineering Professor and John Whitcomb, a theology

Professor, published a book entitled The Genesis Flood, in 1963 the Creation

Research Society (CRS) was formed to push the young-earth teaching. By 1970

the teaching of evolution became legal in all states, the Institute for Creation

Research was established in 1972 to push the idea of a young earth and God’s

creation of the earth. With these dates, the Earth must be 6,000 years old in 2004!

The Hebrew word yom is used in Genesis for day, and in Hebrew it has three

meanings; (a) sunrise to sunset, (b) sunset to sunset, (c) a segment of time without

any reference to solar days (anywhere from weeks to a year to several years to an

age or epoch). It cannot be used for infinite time, but only for a specific time period.

How do the ages that are found by Science agree with these “ideas of young age”

that are being pushed by the young earth creationists?


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Age of the Universe

  • Expansion of the Universe from the “Big Bang”!

  • Astronomers have been able to measure the motion and speed of Galaxies

  • and the even older, more power-packed bodies called quasars. What they

  • see is that the farther away the object, the faster it is moving away. This set

  • of facts tells us that the universe is expanding outward from a starting point

  • in space and time. Confirmation of this expansion time measurement

  • comes from observations of the temperature and smoothness of the

  • cosmic background radiation. The latest results give dates accurate to

  • within 15%.

  • 2. Stellar Burning!

  • The color and brightness of a star will tell how long it has been burning if

  • we know it’s mass. This is based upon models of stellar formation and

  • upon nuclear physics experiments and theories. These estimates of the

  • ages of the stars should be accurate to within 5%.

  • 3. Abundances of Radioactive Elements!

  • Heavy elements are produced only during fast neutron capture in supernovae

  • explosions. These giant exploding stars produce the heavy elements by

  • neutron capture on a rapid time scale. Since we still have some of these

  • long lived isotopes on earth, we can tell the age of the earth. Since shorter

  • isotopes are not present, we also know that the earth is old and not young.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Components of Matter

All Matter consists of Elementary Particles, called Atoms, which

are composed of Protons, Neutrons and Electrons. (P+, N or n, e-)

(A proton is normally designated as 1H)

Neutrons are unstable outside of the Nucleus, where they are

combined with protons and held together by the strong Nuclear

Force, without being combined with a proton, a Neutron is

unstable, and decays by a “Radioactive Decay” process.

n P+ + e- + Energy or n 1H + e- + Energy

This process is called Beta decay and occurs when ever there

are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom. A “Beta” particle

is nothing more than a high speed (Energy!) electron, normally

traveling at a speed of a fraction of the speed of light

( 3.7 x 108m/s) with an energy of millions of electron volts.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

How are Elements Produced? - I

Neutron Capture – Long Time Scale – Star – Hydrogen Burning

This process is called Nuclear Fusion and is the source of

Energy in Stars such as our sun!

1H + 1H 2H + b+

( b+ = a positive electron, or positron, a particle of anti-matter!)

( 2H = Deuterium, a “Heavy” isotope of Hydrogen, containing

one Proton and one Neutron)

When anti-matter and normal matter come into contact with each

other, they destroy each other, producing energy in the form of

Gamma-rays!

e- + b+ 2 g ( 511 kev)


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

How are Elements Produced? - II

  • The process continues until nearly all of the hydrogen has been

  • used up producing Helium (several hundred billion years), and

  • then the star undergoes the second phase of stellar burning,

  • helium fusion.

  • 1H + 1H 2H + b+1H + 2H3He (He = Helium)

  • 2H + 2H 3He + 1n 2H + 3H 4He + 1n

  • 3He + 3He 4He + 2 1H 3He + 1H 4He + b+

  • This is where our Star, the Sun obtains it’s energy currently, and

  • these Nuclear reactions are occurring producing energy (light and

  • heat) as well as Helium. This will continue for several billion years.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

How are Elements Produced? - III

Radioactive decay – There are several forms of radioactive

decay, we will only consider two:

Alpha decay – Heavy elements, Uranium and Thorium etc.

238U 4a+ 234Th +Energy

Beta decay – Neutron rich Isotopes

14C b- + 14N + Energy


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

How are Elements Produced? - IV

The Neutrons that are produced by the previous nuclear reactions

are captured by other isotopes producing neutron rich isotopes.

Some of these isotopes are not stable due to the large numbers of

Neutrons and they undergo beta decay, where a neutron decays

into a proton, producing a new element! Several examples are

given below, and on the following slides.

12C(n,g)13C (Stable)

13C(n,g)14C (Radioactive, 5730 year T1/2) 14C b- + 14N

14N(n,g)15N (Stable)

15N(n,g)16N (Radioactive, 7.1 sec T1/2) 16N b- + 16O

16O(n,g)17O (Stable)

17O(n,g)18O (Stable)

18O(n,g)19O (Radioactive, 26.9 sec T1/2) 19O b- + 19F

19F(n,g)20F (Radioactive, 11.0 sec T1/2) 20F b- + 20Ne

20Ne(n,g)21Ne (Stable)


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

How are Elements Produced? - V

21Ne(n,g)22Ne (Stable)

22Ne(n,g)23Ne (Radioactive, 37.2 sec T1/2) 23Ne b- + 23Na

23Na(n,g)24Na (Radioactive, 15.0 hr T1/2) 24Na b- + 24Mg

24Mg(n,g)25Mg (Stable)

25Mg(n,g)26Mg (Stable)

26Mg(n,g)27Mg (Radioactive, 9.4 min T1/2) 27Mg b- + 27Al

27Al(n,g)28Al (Radioactive, 2.3 min T1/2) 28Al b- + 28Si

28Si(n,g)29Si (Stable)

29Si(n,g)30Si (Stable)

30Si(n,g)31Si (Radioactive, 2.6 hr T1/2) 31Si b- + 31P

31P(n,g)32P (Stable)

32P(n,g)33P (Radioactive, 14.3 d T1/2) 33P b- + 33S

33S(n,g)34S (Stable)

34S(n,g)35S (Radioactive, 87.2 d T1/2) 35S b- + 35Cl

35Cl(n,g)36Cl (Radioactive, 3.01 x 105yr T1/2) 36Cl b- + 36Ar

36Ar(n,g)37Ar (Radioactive, 35.0 d T1/2) 37Ar + e-37Cl


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

How are Elements Produced? - VI

37Cl(n,g)38Cl (Radioactive, 37.2 min T1/2) 38Cl b- + 38Ar

38Ar(n,g)39Ar (Radioactive, 369 yr T1/2) 39Ar b- + 39K

39K(n,g)40K (Radioactive, 1.28 x 109yr T1/2) 40K b- + 40Ca

40Ca(n,g)41Ca (Radioactive, 1.03 x 105yr T1/2) 41Ca + e-41K

41K(n,g)42K (Radioactive, 12.4 hr T1/2) 42K b- + 42Ca

42Ca(n,g)43Ca (Stable)

43Ca(n,g)44Ca (Stable)

44Ca(n,g)45Ca (Radioactive, 162.7 d T1/2) 45Ca b- + 45Sc

45Sc(n,g)46Sc (Radioactive, 83.8 d T1/2) 46Sc b- + 46Ti

46Ti(n,g)47Ti (Stable)

47Ti(n,g)48Ti (Stable)

48Ti(n,g)49Ti (Stable)

49Ti(n,g)50Ti (Stable)

50Ti(n,g)51Ti (Radioactive, 5.76 min T1/2) 51Ti b- + 51V

51V(n,g)52V (Radioactive, 3.76 min T1/2) 52V b- + 52Cr

52Cr(n,g)53Cr (Stable)


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

How are Elements Produced? - VII

Because of gaps in Nuclear Stability, and the binding energy per

Nucleon, it is impossible to make elements above Iron by simple

Neutron capture and Beta decay! The only way to produce

elements heavier than Iron is by neutron capture on a fast time

scale before any of the short lived intermediaries can decay. This

must occur during a super Novae explosion, where many neutrons

can be captured in a very short time scale (~ 10-6sec). Since

elements above Iron are very common on earth, we must have

been cycled through at least one super Novae explosion.

Followed by subsequent beta decay until we reach Nuclear

stability.

Example: 55Fe(n,g)56Fe(n,g)57Fe(20n,20g)87Fe

87Fe b- + 87Co 8b- + 79Br


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

How are Elements Produced? - VIII

Since there are no Stable elements above the mass of Bismuth,

we must have neutron capture on a fast time scale to make

elements such as Uranium, which do exist on earth!

For example:

209Bi + 29 1n 9b- + 238U

The existence of heavy elements on earth with long half-lives

shows that every thing on Earth was at least once cycled

through a supernovae explosion.


Known nuclides

Known nuclides


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Clarification of some fine Points!

On some of the previous slides, I was using Scientific notation,

and it needs to be explained! In Scientific notation, a number that

is very large, or very small can be indicated in an abbreviated form.

A number is given as a number between 1 & 10 followed by a

factor of 10 multiplier. N x 10n Examples:

100 = 1 x 102 one hundred

1,000 = 1 x 103 one thousand

1,000,000 = 1 x 106 one million

1,000,000,000 = 1 x 109 one billion

1,000,000,000,000 = 1 x 1012 one trillion

0.001 = 1 x 10-3 one thousandth

0.0000001 = 1 x 10-6 one millionth

0.0000000001 = 1 x 10-9 one billionth

0.0000000000001 = 1 x 10-12 one trillionth


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Natural Decay Series of Existing Isotopes

40K 40Ar + b-

T1/2 = 1.29 x 109yrs

87Rb 87Sr + b-

T1/2 = 4.8 x 1010yrs

232 Th 208 Pb

T1/2 = 1.4 x 1010yrs

235U 207 Pb

T1/2 = 7 x 108yrs

238U 206 Pb

T1/2 = 4.5 x 109yrs


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Radiogenic Dating methods

The Parent radioisotope decays to the daughter in the time

indicated as the half-life. In all changes of this type, ½ of the atoms

decays to the daughter in the time indicated. By measuring the

quantity of the parent isotope present and the quantity of the

daughter present one can calculate the quantity of time that has

elapsed since the material being tested has been isolated from

outside interference.

In the case of the Long lived Uranium and Thorium decay series,

there are elements in the decay series that are Noble gases, and

being a gas could be lost, but if they are lost, the apparent decay

time would be shorter, not longer!

Models of Element production by the “S” and “R” processes are

used to know how much was initially formed in the Primordial

Universe.


Figure 21 3 the decay of a 10 0 g sample of strontium 90 over time

Figure 21.3: The decay of a 10.0-g sample of strontium-90 over time.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Radioactive Dating Methods

The most common dating method is 14C which has a Half-life of 5730 years decays by

Beta emission (a high energy electron), in which a neutron changes into a proton to

produce the product 14N.

Professor Willard Libby developed the 14C dating method, and received the Nobel prize

for developing the technique in 1960. This method has been used for many years,

and as long as representative samples are used, the method delivers excellent data, on

samples with ages up to approximately 50,000 years.

To measure the very long times needed in the ages of the Earth and Universe, we use

the very long lived naturally occurring isotopes such as:

235U, T1/2 = 7.04 x 108 yrs (704,000,000 yrs); Eventually forming 207Pb

238U, T1/2 = 4.47 x 109 yrs (4,470,000,000 yrs); “ “ 206Pb

232Th, T1/2 = 1.40 x 1010 yrs (14,000,000,000 yrs). “ “ 208Pb

One Stable Isotope of Lead is 204Pb which is have not found in any radioactive decay

series of a naturally occurring Isotope; indicating that it was formed in the original

“big bang” event, and represents premordial formation.

Each of these decays to a different lead isotope which can be measured, giving a dating

method that can be used to date the ages of not only the Earth, but almost any physical

object that contains matter.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Natural Decay series for Uranium 238

238U234 Th

234Pa

234U 230 Th 226Ra 222Rn 218Po 214Pb

218At 214Bi 210 Tl

214Po 210Pb 206Hg

=  decay 210Bi 206Tl

=  decay 210 Po206Pb

238U -- 8decays and 6  decays leaves you with -- 206Pb


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Age of the Universe

Relaxation times of star clusters > 4 Billion Years

Erosion on Mercury, Mars, and the Moon > 4 Billion Years

Star stream interactions in galaxies > 8 Billion Years

Expansion of the Universe 15.5 + 4.0 Billion Years

Color-Luminosity fitting of Stars 18.0 + 2.4 “ “

Nucleochronology (Radioisotopes) 17.0 + 4.0 “ “

Deuterium abundance and mass density 19.0 + 5.0 “ “

Anthropic Principles 17.0 + 7.0 “ “

Mean age = 17 + 3 Billion Years


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

The Greatest Discovery of the Century-I

  • Fact: The universe is only billions of years old, not quadrillions

  • or a nearly infinite number of years.

  • Theological significance: Religious and philosophical systems

  • depending on infinite or near infinite age have no

  • foundation in reality.

  • 2) Fact: The universe can be traced back to a single, ultimate

  • origin of matter, energy, time and space (with the

  • dimensions of length, width, and height).

  • Theological significance: The cause of the universe – i.e., the

  • Entity (Creator) who brought the universe into existence –

  • existed and created from out-side (independent) of the

  • matter, energy, and space-time dimensions of the

  • universe.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

The Greatest Discovery of the Century-II

3) Fact: The universe, our galaxy, and our solar system exhibit

more than sixty characteristics that require exquisite

fine-tuning for their very existence, and also for the

existence of life (any kind of physical life, not just life as

we know it).

Theological significance: The Entity (Creator) who brought the

universe into existence must be personal, intelligent,

powerful, and caring, for only a super-intelligent,

super-powerful Person could design and manufacture

what we see, including life; caring, for only care could

explain the enormous investment of creative effort, the

attention to intricate detail, and the comprehensive

provision for needs.

Observations by the COBE satellite of tiny ripples in the radiation

left over from the “Big Bang”. Evidence for the birth of the universe!


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Age of the Solar System

The Nucleochronology dating methods use the half-lives of long lived

radioisotopes and their daughters to measure the long time periods involved in the ages of the Earth, Moon, and Universe.

Age of the Universe 17+ 3 Billion Years

Age of the Earth 4.57 Billion Years

Age of the moon 4.25 Billion Years

-


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Ages in the Earth-Moon system

Based upon Earth’s position relative to the sun, it should have an atmosphere 40 times

as dense as it has! What happened to the atmosphere? The answer is our over sized

moon! Something happened about 4.25 billion years ago.

The moon is moving away from Earth at a rate of several cm per year! This implies that

the moon was in contact with the Earth approximately 4.25 billion years ago.

The moon is younger than the earth. Radioisotopic dating methods show that the Earth is

4.57 billion years old, and from Apollo samples brought back from the moon, it is only

4.25 billion years old.

The size of the moon also puts a drag on the earth’s rotational velocity, and the Earth’s

rotation is definitely slowing down.

The moon also has a slightly, but significantly different chemical and Isotopic composition

than does the Earth, proving that they did not form from the same dust cloud orbiting

around the sun.

It is postulated that an impactor approximately the size of Mars (nine times the mass of

the moon, and one-ninth the mass of Earth), hit the earth and blew the atmosphere

(containing methane and ammonia) into space, but retaining the water, which is heavier.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

The Response of Young Earth Creationists

Challenge 1: Astronomers are wrong about the distance to stars and galaxies.

Reply: The implication is that astronomers determine the distances of cosmic objects by

only one method: the red-shifts of spectral lines. And because red-shift measurements of

distances may possibly be off by a large percentage, the distances reported by

astronomers are considered unreliable. This, however, is not true. Astronomers use a

wide variety of distance measuring tools. While disagreement does exist over which are

the most reliable, the uncertainties hover around 10 to 15 percent.

Challenge 2: God could have created the light waves already in transit.

Reply: This argument obviously belongs to the appearance-of-age category. The

overlooked fact here is that star light and galaxy light give direct indications of their travel

distances. The spectral lines (light waves at various frequencies) of stars and galaxies

are broadened in direct proportion to the distance they travel. The random motions of

gas clouds in space cause this effect. The radiation between spectral lines, called the

continuum, grows redder as it travels through interstellar and intergalactic dust. This

reddening, like the effect of forest fire smoke on our view of the sun, is directly

proportional to the distance the light has traveled. Both theory and observations confirm

that the broadening and reddening effects are reliable indicators of light-travel time and

distance, even up to billions of light years.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

The Response of Young Earth Creationists

Challenge 3: Light may have traveled faster a few thousand years ago.

Reply: The work of two Australian creationists has been widely publicized among

proponents of a young universe. Barry Setterfield and Trevor Norman teamed up to

propose that the reason the universe appears old is that light used to travel much faster

than it does today. Given decay in light’s velocity, the present value of the velocity of light

would yield an inaccurate measure of the size and age for the universe.

The basis for this claim is a misinterpretation of data from speed-of-light

measurements made over many years. What the data actually show is the increasing

refinement of measurements, not a change in velocity. The first calculation of the speed

of light was attempted in 1675 by Olaus Romer, a Danish astronomer. His figure was

about 3% higher than the modern measurements show. But the uncertainty in his

measurements exceeded 3%. If Romer had had more precise data for one part of his

calculation, his speed-of-light figure would have agreed with modern measurements to

within 0.5%. Apparently the article describing this research was misunderstood by the

Australians, and they took the 1675 speed figure as evidence for the speed-of-light

decreasing by 0.5%.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

The Response of Young Earth Creationists

Challenge 4: Light may take a shortcut through space.

Reply: This argument arises from the work of young-universe creationist

Harold Slusher, who picks up the idea proposed in 1953 by Parry Moon and Domina

Spencer who were trying to overthrow Einstein’s theory of relativity. Their theory was

that light could travel in a different type of space, a highly curved type of space, and

therefore travel faster than its fixed speed. They backed up their theory with no

mathematics, or facts, and Slusher did not know how well proven Einstein’s theory of

relativity is accepted and understood by scientists.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Is There Scientific Evidence for a Young

Universe? - I

Sample Evidence A: The continents are eroding too quickly

Erosion measurements show that the continents are lowered by wind, rain, etc., at a rate

of about 0.05 millimeters per year. At this rate, the continents (averaging about

800 meters in elevation) would disappear in about 16 million years. Since continents do

still have considerable elevation, the earth must be younger than 16 million years.

Reply: The fallacy lies in its failure to acknowledge that lava flows, delta and continental

shelf buildup (from eroded material), coral reef buildup, and uplift from colliding tectonic

plates occur at rates roughly equivalent to, and in many cases far exceeding, the erosion

rate. The Himalayas, for example, as a result of tectonic uplift, are rising at a rate of

about 15 millimeters per year. The San Gabriel Mountains, just north of Los Angeles, are

rising at an average rate of 9 millimeters per year. Lava flows have increased the land

area of the state of Hawaii by several square miles since its admission into the United

States in 1959. The amount of land mass added each year as a result of volcanoes and

tectonics is roughly independent of the total continental land area. Therefore continental

land area continues to increase until there is enough land area that the rate of erosion

equals the rate of build up. The time required for the continents to build up from 0% of

the global surface area to the present 30% (and equilibrium) takes about 2 billion years.

Thus continental erosion is an argument for an old rather than a young earth.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Is There Scientific Evidence for a Young

Universe? - II

Sample Evidence B: Dust accumulates too quickly on the moon’s surface.

In the 1950’s measurements at Mauna Loa Volcano in Hawaii by a geophysicist found

nickel on air filters, and he assumed that since it is rare in crustal material it must all be

from meteorites. Using the data that meteorites are about 2.5% nickel, they calculated

that some 14 million tons of space dust settles on the earth every year. Applied to a

4 billion year old moon, this would be 145 feet. Since we know that there is only about

2.5 inches on the moon, this has been used to give an age for the moon of only about

10,000 years by the young-universe creationists.

Reply: I have done 10 years of aerosol measurements at Mauna Loa myself, and the

Nickel found on atmospheric aerosols is predominately of Crustal origin, not

extraterrestrial. In fact the quantity of extraterrestrial material can be measured by an

excess of Iridium and it is much less, amounting for only about 20 thousand tons of

extraterrestrial dust falling on the earth per year. This number is in good agreement with

that obtained from satellites, 23 thousand tons per year. If we use the best data available

on the cosmic dust in fall rate we obtain an age of the moon of 4.25 billion years, in

agreement with the radiogenic dates for the moon, not the young earth date of

6,000 years!


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Is There Scientific Evidence for a Young

Universe? - III

Sample Evidence C: The earth’s magnetic field is decaying too rapidly.

The earth’s magnetic field has decreased steadily since measurements were first taken

some 150 years ago. Based on the field strength of a typical magnetic star (certainly

exceeding any conceivable value for Earth) and on the observed rate of decay, some

creationists have calculated that the decay process must have begun on Earth on more

than 10,000 years ago. Thus the earth’s age must be 10,000 years or less.

Reply: The problem with this evidence is that Earth’s magnetic field does not undergo

steady decay but rather follows a “sinusoidal” pattern. That is, the field strength decays,

builds up, decays, builds up, etc. The proof for this pattern lies in ancient geological

strata found throughout the world. The rocks reveal that the earth’s magnetic field

reverses its polarity roughly every half million years. Each reversal lasts roughly 10,000

years. The earth’s magnetic field originates in the core of the earth where the Iron-Nickel

material that makes up the core is semi molten, and undergoes circulation patterns as

heat from decaying radioisotopes is conducted away from the core. The Iron atoms,

being magnetic align themselves with the earth’s magnetic field, and volcanic lava rocks

formed during volcanic eruptions show the direction and strength of the earth’s magnetic

field as it was when these rocks were cooled from the liquid magma.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Is There Scientific Evidence for a Young

Universe? - IV

Sample Evidence D: The sun burns by gravitational contraction and thus must

be young.

Before the discovery of nuclear energy, the only explanation astronomers could offer for

the enormous energy output of the sun and other stars was gravitational contraction.

Given the diameter and energy output of our sun, we can calculate that its maximum age

would be about 100 million years if it were generating energy only by this process. When

some measurements indicated a very slight decrease in the sun’s diameter, a number of

young-earth creationists concluded that the sun’s energy output must arise only from the

gravitational collapse of the sun, rather than from nuclear fusion processes at its core.

Therefore, they surmised that the sun’s age must be less than 100 million years.

Reply: Again, the argument overlooks significant data. First, it has been shown that if a

body of our sun’s diameter were experiencing gravitational contraction, the temperature,

pressure, and other conditions at its center would inevitably ignite nuclear fusion.

Furthermore, various measured characteristics of the sun - including its effective

temperature, luminosity, spectra, radius, outflow of neutrinos, and mass - all guarantee

that the sun is burning by nuclear fusion and that this fusion has been proceeding for

about 5 billion years. As for the observed decrease in the sun’s diameter, the

measurements cited were later found to be at odds with other visual measurements.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Is There Scientific Evidence for a Young

Universe? - V

Sample Evidence E: Galaxy clusters are not dispersed widely.

For a cluster of heavenly bodies to remain together (contained), the gravity of the system

must be sufficient to overcome the velocities of the individual bodies within it. Armed with

measurements of the velocities and masses for all the galaxies in a galaxy cluster,

astronomers can calculate: (a) the dispersal time (time it takes for all the galaxies to

leave the cluster) for clusters with total mass too small for gravitational containment; or

(b) the relaxation time (time required for galaxies to assume randomized velocities) for

clusters with total mass large enough for containment. Some creationists point out that

when such calculations are applied to galaxy clusters, the lack of observed galaxy

dispersal indicates an age for the clusters much less than a billion years.

Reply: The problem with this argument is that these calculations for dispersal and

relaxation times assume not only that all the mass within the galaxy clusters is luminous

but also that galaxies approximate point sources (those with diameters very much

smaller than the average distances between them). On the contrary, sound evidence

exists to conclude that most of the mass is non-luminous (that is, not shining by its own

light production). And galaxies cannot be treated as point sources. In fact, their diameters

are only about an order of magnitude smaller (that is, about ten times smaller) than the

average distances between them within a given cluster.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Is There Scientific Evidence for a Young

Universe? - VI

By comparison, however, essentially all of the mass within the star clusters is visible,

and the stars within the clusters are point sources. The average distances between

them are at least seven orders of magnitude greater (that is, about 10 million times

greater) than their average diameters. When dispersal and relaxation time

calculations are applied to star clusters in our galaxy, many clusters show their ages

to be greater than 2 billion years.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Is There Scientific Evidence for a Young

Universe? - VII

Sample Evidence F: Granite crystal halos can arise from 218Po decay only if the

earth is young.

Polonium 218 is a radioactive isotope with a half-life of only three minutes. Yet halos in

granite crystals that appear to arise from the decay of polonium 218 show up in what

seems to be basement or primordial rock deposits. If the halos arise from primordial

polonium, then how did the surrounding rocks crystallize so rapidly that the crystals were

ready to receive halo impressions from the decay of polonium? The answer according to

young-earth creationist Robert Gentry, among others, is that geologists are wrong about

their understanding of the processes shaping the earth shortly after its formation.

Instead, they say, God must have imposed the geological structures instantaneously.

Therefore, measurements by geologists do not prove that the earth is old, nor can they

be used to argue against a young earth.

Reply: There is no evidence proof of halos in basement or primordial rocks, and likewise

no evidence that halos arise only from the decay of polonium 218. Geologist Jeffrey

Wakefield actually visited all of Gentry’s sample sites, in every case Gentry’s samples

came not from primordial granites as he had claimed, but rather from young dikes

(igneous rock infusions into vertical fissures) that crosscut older igneous and

sedimentary rocks. The decay of Uranium or Thorium all have 7 or 8 alpha emitters!

Since any alpha emitter can make halos, these other isotopes could be responsible.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Is There Scientific Evidence for a Young

Universe? - VIII

Sample Evidence G: Rapid sedimentation and peat deposition following the 1980

Mount Saint Helens eruption demonstrated that all geological processes are not

gradual, but rapid.

Within a relatively brief period of time (a few months to a few years) following the violent

eruption of Mt. St. Helens, peat layers (the first stage in the formation of Coal) and

sedimentary rock already had formed in the vicinity of the volcano. This phenomenon

seemed to young-earth creationists to challenge the notion that geologic layers are

deposited according to gradual uniformitarian processes taking place over millions and

hundreds of millions of years. They concluded that geological processes provide

evidences for a young earth and not for an old earth.

Reply: The problem lies in the assumption that all geological processes either take place

gradually at relatively uniform (i.e., constant) rates or rapidly at rates pulsed by major

catastrophes. The young-earth versus old-earth debate is pictured in this context as a

battle between the principles of uniformitarianism and the principles of catastrophism,

with one significant twist. Catastrophism as defined by geologists refers to the formation

of geologic structures through a variety of catastrophes occurring at different times.

Young-earth creationists define catastrophism as the formation of all Earth’s major

geologic structures by a single catastrophic event, namely the Genesis flood, occurring


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Is There Scientific Evidence for a Young

Universe? - IX

during a ten-and-a-half-month period five to fifteen thousand years ago. The use of the

Mount Saint Helens exemplifies the “either-or” fallacy (that is, it sets up an unfounded

dilemma). Geology reflects the operation of both slow and rapid processes. Some

geological features can only be explained by gradual processes over millions of years,

such as: coral atolls, anthracite coal and certain conglomerate and metamorphic layers.

In the case of coral atolls, scientists can measure the daily accumulation of band-like

deposits over millions of years. From these deposits they can make many

determinations, including the rate of slowing of the earth’s rotation period. Such deposits

establish that the earth’s rotation period has been slowing down at exactly the same rate

over the last 400 million years.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Is There Scientific Evidence for a Young

Universe? - X

Sample Evidence H: Since computer models of the spiral structure of galaxies

show that the spiral collapses after two or three rotations, spiral galaxies must

be much younger than astronomers claim.

Isaac Newton’s laws of motion enable us to calculate with considerable precision the

dynamics of large rotating systems of stars. When Kevin Prendergast made such

calculations twenty-five years ago, he discovered that a large system of stars will

establish a spiral structure only in a few rotations and that after two or three more

rotations the structure will collapse into a sphere or an ellipsoid. Since we know that

galaxies take only a few hundred million years to rotate, the existence of a significant

number of spiral galaxies in the universe today, according to certain young-universe

creationists, proves they cannot be as old as the 9 to 15 billion years that astronomers

claim. Instead, they must be less than 2 billion years old. If they are less than 2 billion

years old, then astronomers cannot be trusted in their age calculations, and perhaps

the universe is only thousands of years old.

Reply: The argument based upon evidence H overlooks the continuing research by

Prendergast and others. In the years following his initial computer modeling efforts,

Prendergast discovered that ongoing star formation stabilizes the spiral structure.

Specifically, he demonstrated that as long as new stars continue to form at a significant


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Is There Scientific Evidence for a Young

Universe? - XI

rate within a galaxy, the spiral structure will be maintained. But as soon as star

formation ceases, the spiral structure will collapse within the next two or three rotations.

Prendergast’s discovery beautifully dovetails with astronomers’ observations of

galaxies. In spherical and ellipsoidal galaxies, astronomers see no evidence of ongoing

star formation, whereas in the spiral galaxies such evidence is abundant. And, the

farther away astronomers look (that is, the farther back in time they see), the more spiral

galaxies they observe. Since spiral galaxies still exist, the universe cannot be any older

than about 25 billion years. Because only 6% of the galaxies near our own are spirals,

the universe cannot be any younger than about 12 billion years.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Is There Scientific Evidence for a Young

Universe? - XII

Sample Evidence I: Trails of “human” footprints alongside, and sometimes

crossing over, trails of dinosaur prints prove that dinosaurs were contemporary

with humans.

The observation of a few footprints that appear to be human prints alongside a great

many prints that were clearly made by dinosaurs has been interpreted by many

young-earth creationists as proof that dinosaurs and men lived together. This fact would

imply that the geological strata in which the prints were found could not have been

deposited tens of millions of years ago but only in the last few thousand years. Therefore

the dinosaurs and the strata of the earth are not relics from the past but have existed only

for about ten thousand years.

Reply: The first assumption that must be addressed is that prints in close proximity

necessarily establish contemporaneous existence. This fact is false. The earth’s strata

can be disturbed and redisturbed by events occurring at different times, especially in a

river bed like that at Glen Rose, Texas, where most of the “human” footprints have been

found. But this faulty assumption is not the main defect of the argument from evidence I.

The more serious problem lies in the identification of the prints as human. There are

reasons to believe that these “human” prints were made by dinosaurs, their size, shape,

features, etc. All indicate that these tracks were made by small dinosaurs, not “humans”.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Is There Scientific Evidence for a Young

Universe? - XIII

Sample Evidence J: Since a comet’s average lifespan is only a couple of

thousand years, given the rather limited supply of comets, their present existence

proves the solar system cannot be any older than a few thousand years.

Comets orbiting the solar system, such as Halley’s comet, are reported to disintegrate in

about two thousand years on the average. Every time a comet swings close by the sun,

the heat and light of the sun boil away a significant portion of the comet’s mass. After a

few dozen revolutions, none of the comet remains. Since comets are observed orbiting

the sun, the solar system must be only a few thousand years old.

Reply: Estimates cited in evidence J for the average lifespan of a comets date back to

the 1970s. At that time no space-based measurements of comets were available, and

what data did exist was weighted heavily by easy-to-see comets. The easiest comets to

see are those that pass closest to the sun, and these comets suffer the most rapid

disintegration. Hence, estimates previous to 1980 of the average lifespans for comets

have since proven to be far too low. In 1986 five space craft visited Halley’s comet and

made the first accurate measurements of both its mass and its rate of disintegration.

Astronomers determined that Halley’s comet is massive enough to survive at least

another 500 revolutions around the sun. With observations of Halley’s comet going back

to 240 BC, and knowing that it passes the sun every seventy-six years, we can calculate


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Is There Scientific Evidence for a Young

Universe? - IVX

the approximate minimum lifespan for this comet at 40,000+ years. Halley’s comet is

unusual in that it has such a short period of revolution. Much more typical are comets

such as Kohoutek, which comes around the sun every 80,000 years, or Pons-Brooks and

Griggs-Mellish, every 3,000,000 years. Five hundred revolutions for these comets would

yield lifespans of 40 million and 1.5 billion years respectively.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

A “Just Right” Universe

Evidence for the Fine Tuning of the Universe

  • Strong Nuclear force constant

  • if larger: no hydrogen; nuclei essential for life would be unstable

  • if smaller: no elements other than hydrogen

  • Weak Nuclear force constant

  • if larger: too much hydrogen converted to helium in big bang, hence too much

  • heavy element material made by star burning; no expulsion of heavy

  • elements from stars

  • if smaller: too little helium produced from big bang, hence too little heavy

  • element material made by star burning; no expulsion of heavy

  • elements from stars

  • Gravitational force constant

  • if larger: stars would be too hot and would burn up too quickly and too

  • unevenly

  • if smaller: stars would remain so cool that nuclear fusion would never ignite,

  • hence no heavy element production


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

  • Electromagnetic force constant

  • if larger: insufficient chemical bonding; elements more massive than boron

  • would be too unstable for fission

  • If smaller: insufficient chemical bonding; inadequate quantities of either

  • carbon or oxygen

  • Ratio of electromagnetic force constant to gravitational force constant

  • if larger: no stars less than 1.4 solar masses, hence short stellar life spans and

  • uneven stellar luminosities

  • if smaller: no stars more than 0.8 solar masses, hence no heavy element

  • production

  • Ratio of electron to proton mass

  • if larger: insufficient chemical bonding

  • if smaller: insufficient chemical bonding

  • Ratio of numbers of protons to electrons

  • if larger: electromagnetism would dominate gravity, preventing galaxy, star,

  • and planet formation

  • if smaller: electromagnetism would dominate gravity, preventing galaxy, star,

  • and planet formation


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

  • 8. Expansion rate of the Universe

  • if larger: no galaxy formation

  • if smaller: universe would collapse prior to star formation

  • Entropy level of the Universe

  • if smaller: no proto-galaxy formation

  • if larger: no star condensation within the proto-galaxies

  • Baryon or nucleon density of the Universe

  • if larger: too much deuterium from big bang, hence stars burn too rapidly

  • if smaller: insufficient helium from big bang, hence too few heavy elements

  • forming

  • Velocity of light

  • if faster: stars would be too luminous

  • if slower: stars would not be luminous enough

  • Age of the Universe

  • if older: no solar-type stars in a stable burning phase in the right part of the

  • galaxy

  • if younger: solar-type stars in a stable burning phase would not yet have

  • formed


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

  • Initial uniformity of radiation

  • if smoother: stars, star clusters, and galaxies would not have formed

  • if coarser: universe by now would be mostly black holes and empty space

  • Fine structure constant (a number used to describe the fine structure

  • splitting of spectral lines)

  • if larger: DNA would be unable to function; no stars more than 0.7 solar

  • masses

  • if larger than 0.06: matter would be unstable in large magnetic fields

  • if smaller: DNA would be unable to function; no stars less than 1.8 solar

  • masses

  • Average distance between galaxies

  • if larger: insufficient gas would be infused into our galaxy to sustain star

  • formation over an adequate time span

  • if smaller: the sun’s orbit would be too radically disturbed

  • Average distance between stars

  • if larger: heavy element density too thin for rocky planets to form

  • if smaller: planetary orbits would become destabilized

  • Decay rate of the proton

  • if greater: life would be exterminated by the release of radiation

  • if smaller: insufficient matter in the universe for life


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

  • 12Carbon (12C) to 16Oxygen (16O) energy level ratio

  • if larger: insufficient oxygen

  • if smaller: insufficient carbon

  • Ground state energy level for 4Helium (4He)

  • if larger: insufficient carbon and oxygen

  • if smaller: insufficient carbon and oxygen

  • Decay rate of 8Beryllium (8Be)[ 7 x 10-17sec]

  • if slower: heavy element fusion would generate catastrophic explosions in

  • all the stars

  • if faster: no element production beyond beryllium and, hence, no life

  • chemistry possible

  • Mass excess of the neutron over the proton

  • [ n=1.67493 x 10-27kg, p=1.67262 x 10-27kg or n/p=1.00138]

  • if greater: neutron decay would leave too few neutrons to form the heavy

  • elements essential for life

  • if smaller: neutron decay would produce so many neutrons as to cause all

  • stars to collapse rapidly into neutron stars or black holes

  • 22. Initial excess of nucleons over anti-nucleons

  • if greater: too much radiation for planets to form

  • if smaller: not enough matter for galaxies or stars to form


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

  • Polarity of the water molecule

  • if greater: heat of fusion and vaporization would be too great for life to exist

  • if smaller: heat of fusion and vaporization would be too small for life’s

  • existence; liquid water would become too inferior a solvent for life

  • chemistry to proceed; ice would not float, leading to a runaway

  • freeze-up

  • Supernovae eruptions

  • if too close: radiation would exterminate life on the planet

  • if too far: not enough heavy element ashes for the formation of rocky planets

  • if too frequent: life on planet would be exterminated

  • if too infrequent: not enough heavy element ashes for the formation of rocky

  • planets

  • if too late:life on the planet would be exterminated by radiation

  • if too soon:not enough heavy element ashes forthe formation of rocky

  • planets

  • White dwarf binaries

  • if too few: insufficient fluorine produced for life chemistry to proceed

  • if too many: disruption of planetary orbits from stellar density; life on the

  • planet would be exterminated

  • if too soon: not enough heavy elements made for efficient fluorine production

  • if too late: fluorine made too late for incorporation in proto-planet


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

  • 26. Ratio of exotic to ordinary matter

  • if smaller: galaxies would not form

  • if larger: universe would collapse before solar type stars could form

  • Galaxy clusters

  • if too dense: galaxy collisions and mergers would disrupt star and planet

  • orbits; too much radiation

  • if too sparse: insufficient infusion of gas into galaxies to sustain star

  • formation for a long enough time period

  • Number of effective dimensions in the early universe

  • if smaller: quantum mechanics, gravity, and relativity could not coexist and

  • life would be impossible

  • if larger: quantum mechanics, gravity, and relativity could not coexist and

  • life would be impossible

  • Number of effective dimensions in the present universe

  • if smaller: electron, planet, and star orbits would become unstable

  • if larger: electron, planet, and star orbits would become unstable

  • Mass of the neutrino

  • if smaller: galaxy clusters, galaxies, and stars would not form

  • if larger: galaxy clusters and galaxies would be too dense


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

  • Big bang ripples

  • if smaller: galaxies would not form; universe expands too rapidly

  • if larger: galaxy clusters and galaxies would be too dense; black holes would

  • dominate; universe collapses too quickly

  • Total mass density

  • if smaller: universe would expand too quickly for solar type stars to form

  • if larger: universe would expand too slowly, resulting in unstable orbits and

  • too much radiation

  • Space energy density

  • if smaller: universe would expand too slowly, resulting in unstable orbits and

  • too much radiation

  • if larger: universe would expand too quickly for solar type stars to form

  • Size of the relativistic dilation factor

  • if smaller: certain life-essential chemical reactions would not function

  • properly

  • if larger: certain life-essential chemical reactions would not function

  • properly


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

35. Uncertainty magnitude in the Heisenberg uncertainty principle

if smaller: oxygen transport to body cells would be too small; certain

life-essential elements would be unstable; certain life-essential

chemical reactions would not function properly

if larger: certain life-essential elements would be unstable; certain

life-essential chemical reactions would not function properly


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Scriptures of Gods Creation - I

Psalm 33:6

By the word of the Lord the heavens were made,

and by the breath of his mouth all their host.

Jer 10:12

It is He who made the earth by His power,

Who established the world by His power;

And by His understanding He has stretched out the heavens.

Is 48:13

“ Surely My hand founded the earth,

And My right hand spread out the heavens;

When I call to them, they stand together”


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Scriptures of Gods Creation - II

Is 45:18

For thus says the Lord, who created the heavens

(He is the God who formed the earth and made it,

He established it and did not create it a waste place,

but formed it to be inhabited),

“I am the Lord, and there is none else.”

Jer 33:25

“Thus says the Lord, ‘If My covenant for day and night stand

not, and the fixed patterns of heaven and earth I have not

established,”

Is 40:22

It is He who sits above the vault of the earth,

And its inhabitants are like grasshoppers,

Who stretches out the heavens like a curtain

And spreads them out like a tent to dwell in.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Scriptures of Gods Creation - III

Is 40:26 - 28

Lift up your eyes on high

And see who has created these stars,

The one who leads forth their host by number,

He calls them all by name;

Because of the greatness of His might and the strength of

His power

Not one of them is missing.

Why do you say, O Jacob, and assert, O Israel,

“My way is hidden from the Lord,

And the justice due me escapes the notice of my God”

Do you not know? Have you not heard?

The Everlasting God, the Lord, the Creator of the ends of the

earth

Does not become weary or tired.

His understanding is inscrutable.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Protons, Neutrons, electrons and Others

Protons are the building blocks of matter, and are very long lived!

Neutrons are the combination of a proton and an electron, the

Light negatively charged particle that is around the atom. The

following are Nuclear reactions for the decay of a proton, and

Neutrons in atoms with an excess of either particle.

N P+ + b- + Energy Beta decay

P+ + e- N + Energy Electron capture

P+ N + b+ + Energy Positron decay

A positron is an example of “Exotic” matter, or anti-matter, and

it is in a positive matter Universe!


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) – A new and

Important Tool in Imaging Research

In the technique of positron Tomography, a positron emitting isotope

Is included into a molecule that is incorporated into a chemical reaction.

The positron emitted during the decay of the isotope will analite with an

Electron and emit two 511 kev gamma rays that can then be detected,

and the location of the decaying isotope isolated accurately.

b+ + e- Energy Two Gamma rays at 180o

511 kev

The two gamma

rays come away

at 180o.

511 kev

e- +b+

Common Positron emitting Isotopes: 15O, T1/2 = 122s ; 18F, T1/2 = 1.83 hr

11C, T1/2= 20.3 min , 13N, T1/2 = 9.97 min , ETC


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Positron Emitting Isotopes

15O 15N + b+ + Energy

18F 18O + b+ + Energy

11C 11B + b+ + Energy

13N 13C + b+ + Energy

These radioisotopes can be incorporated into glucose molecules

and injected into the blood stream leading to the brain, where the

glucose will be metabolized in the cells. The position of the

glucose tells us where the glucose molecules was! In this way,

We can obtain images of the Human Brain while it is functioning.

Glucose = C6H12O6


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Positron Emission Tomograph

The Tomograph is an

instrument that is a ring

of gamma ray detectors

that react very fast to

gamma rays, and by

measuring the time each

detector receives the signal

one can locate the point of

origin of the gamma ray to a precision of + 1 cm in a

human being or any other physical object, with out

any in vivo investigation. The detectors must have a

capability of measuring up to + 250 ps per pulse.

_

_


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Earth: The Place for Life

Evidence for the Fine-Tuning of the Galaxy-Sun-Earth-Moon

System for Life Support (4)

  • Galaxy cluster type

  • if too rich:galaxy collisions and mergers would disrupt solar orbit

  • if too sparse: insufficient infusion of gas to sustain star formation for a long

  • enough time

  • Galaxy size

  • if too large: infusion of gas and stars would disturb sun’s orbit and ignite too

  • many galactic eruptions

  • if too small: insufficient infusion of gas to sustain star formation for a long

  • enough time

  • Galaxy Type

  • if too elliptical:star formation would cease before sufficient heavy element

  • build-up for life chemistry

  • if too irregular: radiation exposure on occasion would be too severe and

  • heavy elements for life chemistry would not be available

  • Galaxy location

  • if too close to a rich galaxy cluster: galaxy would be gravitationally disrupted

  • if too close to very large galaxy(ies):galaxy would be gravitationally disrupted


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

  • 5. Supernovae Eruptions

  • if too close:life on the planet would be exterminated by radiation

  • if too far: not enough heavy element ashes would exist for the formation of

  • rocky planets

  • if too infrequent: not enough heavy element ashes present for the formation

  • of rocky planets

  • if too frequent: life on the planet would be exterminated

  • if too soon:not enough heavy element ashes would exist for the formation

  • of rocky planets

  • if too late: life on the planet would be exterminated by radiation

  • White dwarf binaries

  • if too few: insufficient fluorine would be produced for life chemistry to

  • proceed

  • if too many: planetary orbits disrupted by stellar density; life on planet

  • would be exterminated

  • if too soon: not enough heavy elements would be made for efficient fluorine

  • production

  • if too late:fluorine would be made too late for incorporation in protoplanet

  • Proximity of solar nebula to a supernova eruption

  • if farther: insufficient heavy elements for life would be absorbed

  • if closer:nebula would be blown apart


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

  • Timing of solar nebula formation relative to supernova eruption

  • if earlier: nebula would be blown apart

  • if later: nebula would not absorb enough heavy elements

  • Parent star distance from center of galaxy

  • if farther: quantity of heavy elements would be insufficient to make rocky

  • planets

  • if closer: galactic radiation would be too great; stellar density would disturb

  • planetary orbits

  • Parent star distance from closest spiral arm

  • if too large: exposure to harmful radiation from galactic core would be too

  • great

  • Z-axis heights of star’s orbit

  • if more than one:tidal interactions would disrupt planetary orbit of life

  • support planet

  • if less than one: heat produced would be insufficient for life

  • Number of stars in the planetary system

  • if more than one: tidal interactions would disrupt planetary orbit of life

  • support planet

  • if less than one: heat produced would be insufficient for life


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

  • Parent star birth date

  • if more recent: star would not yet have reached stable burning phase; stellar

  • system would contain too many heavy elements

  • if less recent: stellar system would not contain enough heavy elements

  • 14. Parent star age

  • if older: luminosity of star would change too quickly

  • if younger: luminosity of star would change too quickly

  • Parent star mass

  • if greater: luminosity of star would change too quickly; star would burn too

  • rapidly

  • if less: range of planet distances for life would be too narrow; tidal forces

  • would disrupt the life planet’s rotational period; UV radiation would

  • be inadequate for plants to make sugars and oxygen

  • Parent star metallicity

  • if too small: insufficient heavy elements for life chemistry would exist

  • if too large: radioactivity would be too intense for life; life would be poisoned

  • by heavy element concentrations

  • Parent star color

  • if redder: photosynthetic response would be insufficient

  • if bluer: photosynthetic response would be insufficient


Figure 12 3 classification of electromagnetic radiation

Figure 12.3: Classification of electromagnetic radiation


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

  • H3 + production

  • if too small: simple molecules essential to plant formation and life chemistry

  • would not form

  • if too large: planets would form at wrong time and place for life

  • Parent star luminosity relative to speciation

  • if increases too soon: runaway greenhouse effect would develop

  • if increases too late: runaway glaciation would develop

  • 20. Planet’s surface gravity (escape velocity)

  • if stronger: planet’s atmosphere would retain too much ammonia and

  • methane

  • if weaker: planet’s atmosphere would lose too much water

  • Planet’s distance from parent star

  • if farther: planet would be too cool for a stable water cycle

  • if closer: planet would be too warm for a stable water cycle

  • Planet’s inclination of orbit

  • if too great: temperature differences on planet would be too extreme

  • Planet’s orbital eccentricity

  • if too great: seasonal temperature differences would be too extreme


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

  • Planet’s axial Tilt

  • if greater: surface temperature differences would be too great

  • if less: surface temperature differences would be too great

  • Planet’s rate of change of axial tilt

  • if greater: climatic changes would be too extreme; surface temperature

  • differences would become too extreme

  • Planet’s rotation period

  • if longer: diurnal temperature differences would be too great

  • if shorter: atmospheric wind velocities would be too great

  • Planet’s rate of change in rotation period

  • if longer: surface temperature range necessary for life would not be sustained

  • if shorter: surface temperature range necessary for life would not be sustained

  • 28. Planet age

  • if too young: planet would rotate too rapidly

  • if too old: planet would rotate too slowly

  • Planet’s magnetic field

  • if stronger: electromagnetic storms would be too severe

  • if weaker: ozone shield would be inadequately protected from hard stellar and

  • solar radiation


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

  • 30. Planet’s thickness of crust

  • if thicker: too much oxygen would be transferred from the atmosphere to the

  • crust

  • if thinner: volcanic and tectonic activity would be too great

  • Planet’s albedo (ratio of reflected light to total amount falling on surface)

  • if greater: runaway glaciation would develop

  • if less: runaway greenhouse effect would develop

  • Planet’s asteroidal and cometary collision rate

  • if greater: too many species would become extinct

  • if less: crust would be too depleted of materials essential for life

  • Mass of body colliding with primordial Earth

  • if smaller: Earth’s atmosphere would be too thick; moon would be too small

  • if greater: Earth’s orbit and form would be too greatly disturbed

  • Timing of body colliding with primordial Earth

  • if earlier: Earth’s atmosphere would be too thick; moon would be too small

  • if later: sun would be too luminous at epoch for advanced life


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Continental Flood Basalts and Extinction Events

Flood Basalts (Myr) Extinctions (Myr)

Columbia River 16+1 Lower/Middle Miocene 14+3

Ethiopian 36.9+0.9 Late Eocene* 36+1

North Atlantic 59.5+1 Paleocene/Eocene*? 57.8+1

Deccan 65.5+2.5 Cretaceous/Tert.* 65+1

Madagascar 86.6+2 Cenomanian/Turon.*? 92+1

Rajmahal 117+1 Aptian/Albian 113+4

Serra Geral 133+1 Jurassic/Cretaceous*? 137+7

Antarctic 176+1 Bajocian/Bathonian*? 173+3

Karoo 190+2 Pliensbachian 193+3

Newark 201+1 Triassic/Jurassic* 203+2

Wrangellia ~225 Ladinian/Carnian ~225

Siberian 248+4 Permian/Triassic*? 251+4

* Impact evidence *? Possible impact evidence


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

  • 35. Collision location of body colliding with primordial Earth

  • if too close to grazing: insufficient debris to form large moon; inadequate

  • annihilation of Earth’s primordial atmosphere;

  • inadequate transfer of heavy elements to Earth

  • if too close to dead center: damage from collision would be too destructive

  • for future life to exist

  • 36. Oxygen to nitrogen ratio in atmosphere

  • if larger: advanced life functions would proceed too quickly

  • if smaller: advanced life functions would proceed too slowly

  • Carbon dioxide level in atmosphere

  • if greater: runaway greenhouse effect would develop

  • if less: plants would be unable to maintain efficient photosynthesis

  • Water vapor level in Atmosphere

  • if greater: runaway greenhouse effect would develop

  • if less: rainfall would be too meager for advanced life on the land

  • Atmospheric electric discharge rate

  • if greater:too much fire destruction would occur

  • if less: too little nitrogen would be fixed in the atmosphere


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

The Greenhouse effect


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

The Electromagnetic Spectrum


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Carbon Dioxide Increase in the

Atmosphere at Mauna Loa Observatory,

Hawaii

Year CO2 Conc. Year CO2 Conc. Year CO2 Conc.

1971 324.62 1983 342.89 1995 360.62

1972 325.43 1984 343.99 1996 362.36

1973 326.49 1985 345.53 1997 363.47

1974 329.30 1986 346.73 1998 366.49

1975 330.85 1987 349.08 1999 368.13

1976 331.78 1988 351.43 2000 369.13

1977 333.68 1989 352.89 2001 371.08

1978 335.28 1990 354.12 2002 373.16

1979 336.38 1991 355.45 2003 375.79

1980 338.05 1992 356.20 2004

1981 339.69 1993 356.92 2005

1982 341.20 1994 358.64 2006


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Carbon Dioxide record at the Mauna Loa Observatory in

Hawaii 1971-2003


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

  • Ozone level in atmosphere

  • if greater: surface temperatures would be too low

  • if less: surface temperatures would be too high; there would be too much uv

  • radiation at the surface

  • Oxygen quantity in atmosphere

  • if greater: plants and hydrocarbons would burn up too easily

  • if less: advanced animals would have too little to breathe

  • Seismic activity

  • if greater: too many life-forms would be destroyed

  • if less: nutrients on ocean floors from river runoff would not be recycled to

  • continents through tectonics; not enough carbon dioxide would be

  • released from carbonates

  • Volcanic activity

  • if lower: insufficient amounts of carbon dioxide and water vapor would be

  • returned to the atmosphere; soil mineralization would become too

  • degraded for life

  • if higher: advanced life, at least, would be destroyed

  • Rate of decline in tectonic activity

  • if slower: advanced life could never survive on the planet

  • if faster:advanced life could never survive on the planet


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

UVB

UVA

The absorption spectra for Ozone and Molecular

Oxygen. The region that is absorbed by molecular

Oxygen and Ozone are referred to as the UVA (100-240 nm)

and the UVB (240-360 nm) region of the electromagnetic

Spectrum and are referred to as ionizing radiation.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Visible

UVA

UVB

Plot of wavelength verses intensity

of in coming solar radiation.

UVA and UVB are known as ionizing

radiation and will destroy molecules!


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Stratospheric Chemical reactions

leading to Ozone Depletion - I

Normal Ozone production in the stratosphere and its absorption

of Ultra violet. Ozone is made when Ultra Violet Light (UVA) is

absorbed by molecular oxygen to create two oxygen atoms. If

these oxygen atoms collide with molecular oxygen they react to

form Ozone. The Ozone formed will absorb Ultra Violet light in the

UVB wavelengths, thus absorbing most of the short wavelength

UV light, which is also called ionizing radiation, and will destroy

biological molecules.

O2 2 O l = hn = 170-190 nm (UVA)

O + O2 O3

O3 O2 + O l = hn = 200-300 nm (UVB)

hn

hn


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Stratospheric Chemical reactions

leading to Ozone Depletion - II

In 1971 Dr. Harold Johnson A professor at the University of

California at Berkeley, calculated that the Nitrogen oxides

produced by the Jet engines of the then proposed Super Sonic

Transports (SST’s) would destroy much of the Ozone layer that

protects us on the Earth’s surface from Ultra Violet light

(both UVA ad UVB). The reactions he proposed are:

N2 + O2 2 NO =This symbol indicated heat energy

NO + O3 NO2 + O2This reaction is very fast!

Adding these last two reactions

NO2 + O NO + O2together and canceling out similar

reactants gives the catalytic reaction!

O3 + O 2 O2This reaction shows Ozone destruction!

The results of this research stopped the US from making an SST!


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Chlorofluorocarbons (Freon’s)

Freon-11 CF2Cl2 : Freon-12 CFCl3

Stratospheric Reaction Chemistry:

CF2Cl2 CF2Cl + Cl

Cl + O3 O2 + ClO

ClO + O O2 + Cl

O3 + O 2 O2

Catalytic Ozone destruction

hn

.

.

.

.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Ozone Levels over Antarctica, The Antarctic Ozone Hole


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

The Ozone Hole

over Antarctica

Ozone and ClO


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

  • Rate of decline in volcanic activity

  • if slower: advanced life could never survive on the planet

  • if faster: advanced life could never survive on the planet

  • Oceans-to-continents ratio

  • if greater: diversity and complexity of life-forms would be limited

  • if smaller: diversity and complexity of life-forms would be limited

  • Rate of change in oceans-to-continents ratio

  • if smaller: advanced life would lack the needed land mass area

  • if greater:advanced life would be destroyed by radical changes

  • Global distribution of continents (for Earth)

  • if too much in the southern hemisphere: seasonal differences would be too

  • severe for advanced life

  • Frequency and extent of ice ages

  • if smaller: insufficient fertile, wide, and well-watered valleys produced for

  • diverse and advanced life forms; insufficient mineral

  • concentrations occur for diverse and advanced life

  • if greater: planet inevitably experiences runaway freezing


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Volcanic Activity - I

Volcanoes Usually produce large quantities of Sulfur Dioxide.

This SO2 reacts to form acids which cause acid rain, which can

cause rocks to weather (break down), these acids also have

deleterious effects on vegetation.

SO2(g) + H2O(L) H2SO3(aq) Sulfurous acid (A weak acid)

2 SO2(g) + O2(g) 2 SO3(g)

SO3(g) + H2O(L) H2SO4(aq) Sulfuric acid (A strong acid)

Volcanoes also produce ash, along with the sulfuric acid, will form

aerosols (particles) in the atmosphere that will reflect sunlight back

into space, cooling the atmosphere.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Volcanic Activity - II

The chemistry of volcanoes is such that many volcanoes also

release Hydrochloric acid (HCl) or Hydrofluoric acid (HF) in large

concentrations. For example the Hawaiian Volcanoes such as

Kilauea, can release tons of HCl per hour during major eruptions.

These acids have a huge impact on the dissolution of rocks and

the releasing of many metals essential for life into the environment.

Hot spot volcanic activity is a unique type that has had a great

Impact on life forms on Earth, and has been going on for millions

of years. Chains of Islands such as the Hawaiian Islands are

formed by Hot spot volcanism. These volcanoes also produce a

unique chemical signature, as they contain elements found in the

core of the earth such as Iridium, Platinum, Osmium and Rhenium,

Very rare on the surface of the earth.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

  • Soil mineralization

  • if too nutrient poor: diversity and complexity of life-forms would be limited

  • if too nutrient rich: diversity and complexity of life-forms would be limited

  • Gravitational interaction with a moon

  • if greater: tidal effects on the oceans, atmosphere, and rotational period

  • would be too severe

  • if less: orbital obliquity changes would cause climatic instabilities;

  • movement of nutrients and life from the oceans to the continents

  • and vice versa would be insufficient; magnetic field would be too

  • weak

  • Jupiter distance

  • if greater: too many asteroid and comet collisions would occur on Earth

  • if less: Earth’s orbit would become unstable

  • Jupiter mass

  • if greater: Earth’s orbit would become unstable

  • if less: too many asteroid and comet collisions would occur on Earth

  • Drift in major planet distances

  • if greater: Earth’s orbit would become unstable

  • if less: too many asteroid and comet collisions would occur on Earth


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

  • Major planet eccentricities

  • if greater: orbit of life supportable planet would be pulled out of life support

  • zone

  • Major planet orbital instabilities

  • if greater: orbit of life supportable planet would be pulled out of life support

  • zone

  • Atmospheric pressure

  • if too small: liquid water would evaporate too easily and condense too

  • infrequently

  • if too large: liquid water would not evaporate easily enough for land life;

  • insufficient sunlight would reach planetary surface; insufficient

  • UV radiation would reach planetary surface

  • 58: Atmospheric transparency

  • if smaller: insufficient range of wavelengths of solar radiation would reach

  • planetary surface

  • if greater: too broad a range of wavelengths of solar radiation would reach

  • planetary surface


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Visible

UVA

UVB

Plot of wavelength verses intensity

of in coming solar radiation.

UVA and UVB are known as ionizing

radiation and will destroy molecules!


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

  • Chlorine quantity in atmosphere

  • if smaller: erosion rates, acidity of rivers, lakes, and soils, and certain

  • metabolic rates would be insufficient for most life forms

  • if larger: erosion rates, acidity of rivers, lakes, and soils, and certain

  • metabolic rates would be too high for most life forms

  • Iron quantity in oceans and soils

  • if smaller: quantity and diversity of life would be too limited for support of

  • advanced life; if very small, no life would be possible

  • if larger: iron poisoning of at least advanced life would result

  • Tropospheric ozone quantity

  • if smaller:insufficient cleaning of biochemical smogs would result

  • if larger: respiratory failure of advanced animals, reduced crop yields, and

  • destruction of ozone-sensitive species would result

  • Stratospheric ozone quantity

  • if smaller: too much UV radiation would reach planet’s surface causing skin

  • cancers and reduced plant growth

  • if larger: too little uv radiation would reach planet’s surface causing reduced

  • plant growth


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

  • Mesospheric ozone quantity

  • if smaller: circulation and chemistry of mesospheric gases so disturbed as to

  • upset relative abundances of life essential gases in lower

  • atmosphere

  • if greater: circulation and chemistry of mesospheric gases so disturbed as to

  • upset relative abundances of life essential gases in lower

  • atmosphere

  • Quantity and extent of forest and grass fires

  • if smaller: growth inhibitors in the soils would accumulate; soil nitrification

  • would be insufficient; insufficient charcoal production for

  • adequate soil water retention and absorption of certain growth

  • inhibitors

  • if greater: too many plant and animal life forms would be destroyed

  • Quantity of soil sulfur

  • if smaller: plants would become deficient in certain proteins and die

  • if larger: plants would die from sulfur toxins; acidity of water and soil would

  • become too great for life; nitrogen cycle would be disturbed

  • Biomass to comet infall ratio

  • if smaller: greenhouse gases accumulate, triggering runaway surface

  • temperature increase

  • if larger: greenhouse gases decline, triggering a runaway freezing


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Expected Population Growth in Adam’s Lifetime!

According to Genesis 5, life spans from Adam to Noah

averaged 912 years. The population table is based upon the

following assumptions:

Life span = 900 years,

first child comes at age forty,

childbearing years = 600 yrs,

one child every four years during

child bearing years.

Archeological evidence from the pre-flood era provides no

indication that the pre-flood population ever became this large.

Infant mortality and disease could be the reasons that the

population stayed small.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Adam’s Reproducing Children Total

Age Couples Born Population

0 1 0 2

40 1 10 12

80 6 30 42

120 21 100 142

160 71 352 494

200 247 1,210 1,704

240 852 4,180 5,884

280 2,942 14,450 20,334

320 10,167 49,892 70,226

360 35,113 172,358 242,584

400 121,292 595,378 837,962

440 418,980 2,056,530 2,894,492

480 1,447,245 7,103,862 9,998,364

520 4,999,176 24,538,536 34,536,930

560 17,268,444 84,762,338 119,299,368

600 59,649,613 292,790,780 412,090,500

640 206,045,003 1,011,374,120 1,423,465,830

680 711,732,063 3,493,544,650 4,917,014,660

720 2,459,504,388 12,067,585,000 16,984,600,000

760 8,492,300,000 41,685,303,000 58,669,903,000


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

The Flood – Global or Regional

If the Flood covered the entire earth to a depth of the highest

mountains, Mt. Everest (5.5 miles), the volume of water would be

approximately 1.1 x 109 mi3 this is about 3 times the volume of the

world’s oceans. Or approximately 730 ft of rain water per day

(6.0 inches of rain per minute) would have had to fall for the

40 days and 40 nights as indicated in Genesis 7! The places

Named in Genesis 1-9 are only around Mesopotamia so could it

have been a regional flood?

The failure of Man kind to spread though out the entire world

as God directed man Kind to do in Genesis 1:28 “ Be fruitful and

Multiply, and fill the earth” brought certain changes. In Genesis 9:7

God repeats the command to multiply and fill the earth. In

Genesis 1-9 the text mentions place-names only in Mesopotamia.

Beginning in Genesis 10, we encounter names beyond

Mesopotamia, indicating that Man kind was finally beginning to

spread out over the earth.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

The Flood - I

  • Biblical phrases such as “under the entire heavens” and

  • “the face of the earth” must be interpreted in the writer’s

  • (and most readers’) context, as true where these terms are

  • used elsewhere in Scripture.

  • 2) The extent and spread of human population and, thus, of sin’s

  • impact was limited, not global. In fact, God rebuked the human

  • race for its failure to spread out over the globe.

  • 3) Genesis mentions no geographical place-names beyond

  • Greater Mesopotamia until chapter ten.

  • 4) Earth’s water quantity supports a regional rather than global

  • Flood. The floodwaters came from Earth’s underground and

  • atmospheric resources, which are plentiful but inadequate to

  • cover the globe.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

The Flood - II

5) Mountain ranges and ocean basins cannot erode in forty days

nor build up in eleven months, as would be required by one

explanation of a global Flood, without leaving evidence easily

visible today.

6) Not even an ark of steel armor plate could survive the rigors of

a Flood gone global in forty days nor of the devastating effects

of tens of thousands of feet of erosion in forty days and similar

uplift within a year’s time.

7) The creatures earmarked for rescue included only Noah,

Noah’s family, and birds and mammals that had significant

contact with humanity.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

The Flood - III

8) Genesis 7 does not claim that water stood above the highest

mountains; rather, it says that an enormous deluge fell upon

or ran over or covered the highest hills visible to Noah.

9) Genesis 8:4 records that the ark landed in the mountains

(or hills) of Ararat, not specifically on top of Mount Ararat

itself. The designated area encompasses more than one

hundred thousand square miles.

10) Olive leaves do not grow at high altitudes, nor could they

survive a global Flood.

11) The water of a global Flood could not recede in less than a

year.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

The Flood - IV

12) A strong wind (Genesis 8:1) would be useful for dissipating a

regional but not a global Flood.

13) Earth cannot possibly support at one time the half-billion or

more species of life the fossil record documents, which would

be required according to the global flood theory.

14) A recent global Flood cannot account for Earth’s enormous

deposits of kerogen, topsoil, limestone, marble, and fossil fuels.

15) Petroleum products were available before the Flood for Noah’s

use in sealing the ark (Genesis 6:14).


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

The Flood - V

16) The million-plus animal species on Earth today could not have

evolved in just a few thousand years from the thirty thousand

species-maximum- the ark could have carried.

17) No viable scientific evidence has ever been found for a recent,

global Flood.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

The Church and Science

For many years there has been a growing split between

“Science, and Scientists” and the “Church”, which for many years

was the catholic church. It probably started with the Greek

Philosopher Aristotle, who believed that every thing revolved

around the earth. During this early time, science was the “Church”,

and all scientists were part of the “Church”, and supported by the

Church.

When the astronomer Copernicus brought forth the idea that the

earth revolved around the sun, and the earth was not the center

of the Universe, there was a break between the Church and

Modern science. I believe the split has it’s roots in this time period.

With the advent of “Modern” science, we now have the “Big

Bang”, or beginning of everything, and the expanding Universe.

Beginning in 1966, George Ellis, Stephen Hawkings, and Rodger

Penrose affirmed that any expanding universe governed by general

relativity and which also contains at least some matter and energy

must possess a singular origin in the finite past.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Reactions of Magnesium Metal

Magnesium metal burning in Air!

2 Mg(s) + O2(g) 2 MgO(s) + Energy

Magnesium metal Burning with Carbon dioxide!

Mg(s) + CO2(g) MgO(s) + CO(g) + Energy

Magnesium Metal Burning with Dry Ice! (Solid Carbon Dioxide)

3 Mg(s) + CO2(s) 2 MgO(s) + MgC(s) + Energy


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Biological Life – Extinction & Speciation

According to the fossil record, at least a half-billion to a

Billion new species of life arose between the Cambrian

Explosion (about 543 million years ago) and the arrival of

human beings (about 30,000 to 50,000 years ago). This

averages about one or two or more new species per year.

Since the coming of humans, however, the rate of new

species discovery has dropped to virtual zero! According to

Biologists Paul and Ann Ehrlich, “The production of a new

animal species in nature has yet to be documented.” In other

words, God rested form his creating on the seventh day,

which we are still in!

The extinction rate has remained constant at about one

species per year during normal conditions, and more during

years of environmental stress.


Figure 4 1 a space filling model of the water molecule

Figure 4.1: A space-filling model of the water molecule.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

The Hexagonal Structure of Ice

Ice Structure with open holes giving

Ice a density less than water it’s self.

The delicate 6 point snow flake

reflects the hexagonal structure.


3 important building blocks of nucleic acids

3 Important Building Blocks of Nucleic Acids

  • 1) A pentose sugar–In RNA the sugar is ribose, and in DNA it is deoxyribose, in which one hydroxy group has been replaced by a hydrogen.

  • 2) A nitrogen containing organic base:

    • Adenine

    • Guanine

    • Thymine

    • Cytosine

    • Uracil

  • 3) A phosphate linkage derived from phosphoric acid


Pentoses

Pentoses

DNA

RNA


Bases found in dna and rna

Bases found inDNAandRNA


Adenosine reaction

Adenosine reaction


Figure 22 37 nucleic acid chain

Figure 22.37: Nucleic acid chain


Figure 22 38 dna double helix

Figure 22.38: DNA double helix


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

The Spontaneous Formation of Life

During the 1970’s there was a very intense effort in the Chemical

Sciences to show that life could be formed spontaneously from

Chemicals assumed to be present on the primitive earth.

Ammonia, methane, and water vapor were placed into containers

along with different other things and sparked to simulate lighting,

and then look for primitive amino acids the building blocks of life.

NH3 + CH4 + H2O + Energy Amino acids

[ H2NCH2COOH, Glycine]

Only simple amino acids were formed, and a few simple

combinations of amino acids were formed after many years and

hundreds of millions of research funds had been expended!


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Odds of Making DNA

What are the odds of making just one strand of DNA out of

Random nucleotide combinations? This demonstration was made

by Michael Heart in 1982 to show how improbable life formation

was, even given the building blocks necessary to form DNA.

400 positions where any one of four nucleotide residues will do,

and at each of 100 other positions where either of two

nucleotide residues would be effective, leaving only 100

positions where the exactly correct nucleotide residue must be

present. (This is a very optimistic set of circumstances!)

For this to occur, the odds are 1:1090, in 10 billion years, the

chance of forming such a strand spontaneously would be 10-90

times 1060, or 10-30 for each of 100 different specific genes to be

formed spontaneously (in 10 billion years) the probability is

(10-30)100 = 10-3000 for them to be in close proximity it is worse!!


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

The Complexity of Biological life

The complexity of DNA and Biological molecules precludes that

they could have been put together by chance!

DNA and genes are so compact that all of the DNA and genes in

a person’s body would fit into a cube the size of an ice cube!

If all of the DNA in a person’s body were unraveled, and joined

end to end, the strand would reach from the earth to the

Sun and back more than 400 times!

The DNA in a single cell is estimated to contain instructions, that

if written out would fill a thousand 600 page books.

Another book stated that all of the information stored in all of the

books of the library of Congress could be stored in just one

strand of a person’s DNA!


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Damage to DNA, RNA, or Genes

Damage to genetic material occurs from Radiation (x-rays,

gamma-rays, Ultraviolet light, etc) or from Chemical mutagens.

It involves the Destruction of the molecule, or the change it’s

properties such as structure, polarity, or ionization.

Damage to DNA, or genetic material in the cells occurs all of

The time, and the body has mechanisms to repair these damaged

molecules, or to replace them with undamaged ones. The

damaged molecules are recycled in to new ones, or ejected from

the body in our waste. When a cell or genetic material is not

capable of replication, or carrying on its function, it is recycled or

removed from the body. Thousands of cells and molecules

containing genetic information are destroyed each day in a normal

human being. We are obviously wonderfully made, and designed

to survive in difficult times and circumstances.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

DNA and Dates for Common Ancestors

Studies on the DNA of modern Humans have given us some

information on the dates for Adam and Eve versus Noah.

A 1995 study revealed a date for the common ancestor of human

males as: between 35,000 and 47,000 B.C.

Mitochondrial DNA yields the common ancestor of all women

between a few thousand and tens of thousands of years earlier.

Of the eight people on Noah’s ark, the four men were blood

related to Noah, but the four women were not, and Eve would be

the most recent common ancestor for them.

The difference in the two biochemical dates roughly fits the time

frame suggested by the Genesis 5 genealogy.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Scientific Evidence for A

“Big Bang” Creation Event - I

  • Existence and temperature of the cosmic background

  • radiation: Ralph Alpher and Robert Herman calculated in 1948

  • that cooling from a big bang creation event would yield a faint

  • cosmic background radiation with a current temperature of

  • roughly 5o Kelvin (-455oF). In 1965 Arno Penzias and Robert

  • Wilson detected a cosmic background radiation and determined

  • that its temperature was about 3o Kelvin (-457oF).

  • 2. Black body character of the cosmic background radiation:

  • Deviations between the spectrum of the cosmic background

  • radiation and the spectrum expected from a perfect radiator

  • measured to be less than 0.03% over the entire range of

  • observed wavelengths. The only possible explanation for such

  • an extremely close fit is that the entire universe must have

  • expanded from an infinitely or nearly infinitely hot and compact

  • beginning.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Scientific Evidence for A

“Big Bang” Creation Event - II

3. Cooling rate of the cosmic background radiation: According

to the big bang, the older, and hence more expanded, the

universe becomes, the cooler will be the cosmic background

radiation. Measurements of the cosmic background radiation at

distances so great that we are looking back to when the universe

was just a half, a quarter, or an eighth of its present age show

temperature measurements that are hotter than the present

2.726oK by exactly the amount that the big bang theory would

predict.

4. Temperature uniformity of cosmic background: The

temperature of the cosmic background radiation varies by no

more than one part in ten thousand from one direction in the

heavens to any other. Such high uniformity only can be

explained if the background radiation arises from an extremely

hot primordial creation event.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Scientific Evidence for A

“Big Bang” Creation Event - III

5. Ratio of photons to baryons in the universe: The ratio of

photons to baryons (protons and neutrons) in the universe

exceeds 100,000,000 to 1. This proved the universe is so

extremely entropic (efficient in radiating heat and light) the only

possible explanation is that the entire universe must be rapidly

exploding from an infinitely or near infinitely hot, dense state.

6. Temperature fluctuations in the cosmic background

radiation: For galaxies and galaxy clusters to form out of a big

bang creation event temperature fluctuations in maps of the

cosmic background radiation should measure at a level of about

one part in a hundred thousand. The predicted fluctuations were

detected at the expected level.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Scientific Evidence for A

“Big Bang” Creation Event - IV

7. Power spectrum of the temperature fluctuations in the

cosmic background radiation: For the big bang universe with

a geometry suitable for the formation of stars and planets

capable of supporting physical life, the temperature fluctuations

in the cosmic background radiation will peak at an angular

resolution close to one degree with a few much smaller spikes at

at other resolutions. In other words, the power spectrum graph

will look like a bell curve with a few sub-peaks to the side of the

main peak. The Boomerang balloon experiment in April 2000

confirmed this big bang prediction.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Scientific Evidence for A

“Big Bang” Creation Event - V

8. Cosmic expansion rate: A big bang creation event implies a

universal expansion o the universe from a beginning several

billion years ago. The most careful measurements of the

velocities of galaxies establish that such a cosmic expansion

has been proceeding for the past 14.9 billion years, a cosmic

age measure that is consistent with all other cosmic age

measurements.

9. Stable orbits of stars and planets: Our universe manifests

stable orbits of planets about stars and stars about the nuclei

of galaxies. Such stable orbits are physically impossible unless

the universe is comprised of three very large and rapidly

expanding dimensions of space.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Scientific Evidence for A

“Big Bang” Creation Event - VI

10. Existence of life and humans: Life and humans require a

stable solar-type star. However: If the universe cools down too

slowly, galaxies would trap radiation so effectively as to prevent

any fragmentation into stars. If the universe cools too rapidly,

no galaxies or stars will ever condense out of the cosmic gas.

If the universe expands too slowly, the universe will collapse

before solar-type stars reach their stable burning phase. If it

expands too rapidly, no galaxies or stars will ever condense

from the general expansion.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Scientific Evidence for A

“Big Bang” Creation Event - VII

11. Abundance of helium in the universe: According to the big

bang, almost exactly one-forth the first four minutes

following the cosmic creation event. Stellar burning provides

the only other possible source of helium. Therefore,

astronomers can test the big bang by measuring the helium

abundance in gas clouds and galaxies where little or no star

burning has taken place. When they do this they determine a

primordial helium abundance = 0.2489 +/- 0.0015, a nearly

perfect fit with what the big bang predicts.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Scientific Evidence for A

“Big Bang” Creation Event - VIII

12. Abundance of deuterium (heavy hydrogen) in the universe:

Only the big bang can produce deuterium. Stars, on the other

hand, destroy deuterium. By measuring the deuterium

abundance in gas clouds and galaxies where little or no star

burning has occurred, astronomers can not only prove that we

live in a big bang universe but also determine what kind of big

bang the universe manifests. The measured results are

consistent with the same kind of big bang demonstrated by all

the other big bang tests.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Scientific Evidence for A

“Big Bang” Creation Event - IX

13. Abundance of lithium in the universe: Only the big bang can

produce lithium. Stars destroy lithium. By measuring the lithium

abundance in gas clouds and galaxies where little or no star

burning has occurred, astronomers cannot only prove that we

live in a big bang universe but also determine what kind of big

bang the universe manifests. The measured results are

consistent with the same kind of big bang demonstrated by all

the other big bang tests.

14. Evidences for general relativity: Recent measurements now

elevate the theory of general relativity to the most exhaustively

tested and best proven principle in all of physics. The solution

to the equations of general relativity demonstrate that the

universe must be expanding from a beginning in the finite past.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Scientific Evidence for A

“Big Bang” Creation Event - X

15. Space-time theorem of general relativity: A mathematical

theorem proven by Stephen hawking and Roger Penrose in

1970 establishes that if the universe contains mass, and if its

dynamics are governed by general relativity, then time itself

must be finite and must have been created when the universe

was created. Also, there must exist a CAUSE responsible for

bringing the universe (which must be expanding) into

existence independent of matter, energy, and all ten of the

cosmic space-time dimensions.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Scientific Evidence for A

“Big Bang” Creation Event - XI

16. Space energy density measurements: Albert Einstein and

Arthur Eddington both developed cosmological models without

a big bang by altering the theory of relativity to include a

cosmic space energy density term (a.k.a. the cosmological

constant) and assigning a particular value to that term.

Recently, astronomers determined that indeed a cosmic space

energy term does exist. Its value, however, proves that

Einstein’s and Eddingion’s models are incorrect. The measured

value actually increases the evidence for the big bang in that it

establishes the universe will continue to expand to an ever

increasing rate.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Scientific Evidence for A

“Big Bang” Creation Event - XII

17. Ten-dimensional creation calculation:A team led by Andrew

Strominger demonstrated that only in a universe framed in ten

space-time dimensions where six of the ten dimensions stop

expanding when the universe is a 10 millionth of a trillionth of a

trillionth of a trillionth of a second old is it possible to have

gravity and quantum mechanics coexist. This demonstration

also successfully predicted both special and general relativity

and solved a number of outstanding problems in both particle

physics and black hole physics. It implies that the big bang and

the laws of physics are valid all the way back to the creation

event itself.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Scientific Evidence for A

“Big Bang” Creation Event - XIII

18. Steller ages: According to the big bang theory, different types

of stars will form at different epochs after creation. The colors

and surface temperatures of stars tells astronomers how long

they have been burning. These measured burning times are

consistent with the big bang. They also are consistent with all

other methods for measuring the time back to the cosmic

creation event.

19. Galaxy ages: According to the big bang theory, nearly all the

galaxies in the universe will form early in its history within

about a 4-billion year window of time. Indeed, astronomers

measure the galaxies to have the predicted ages.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Scientific Evidence for A

“Big Bang” Creation Event - XIV

20. Decrease in galaxy crowding: The big bang predicts that

galaxies will spread farther and farther apart from one another

as the universe expands. Hubble Space Telescope images

show that the farther away in the cosmos one looks (and,

because of light’s finite velocity, the farther back in time) the

more crowded together are the galaxies. In fact, looking back

to when the universe was but a third of its present age, the

Space Telescope images reveal galaxies so tightly packed

together that they literally are ripping spiral arms away from

one another.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Scientific Evidence for A

“Big Bang” Creation Event - XV

21. Photo album history of the universe: Since the big bang

predicts that nearly all the galaxies will form at about the same

time, and since galaxies change their appearance significantly

as they age, images of portions of the universe at progressively

greater and greater distances (and, because of light’s finite

velocity, farther and farther back in time) should show dramatic

changes in the appearances of the galaxies. Hubble Space

Telescope images verify the predicted changes in the

appearances of galaxies.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Scientific Evidence for A

“Big Bang” Creation Event - XVI

22. Ratio of ordinary matter to exotic matter: In the big bang

universe, for the galaxies and stars to form and develop so that

a site suitable for the support of physical life will be possible,

the cosmos must exhibit a ratio of exotic matter (matter that

does not interact well with radiation) to ordinary matter (matter

that strongly interacts with radiation) that measures roughly five

or six to one. Recent measurements reveal just such a ratio

for the universe.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Scientific Evidence for A

“Big Bang” Creation Event - XVII

23. Abundance of beryllium and boron in elderly stars: Long

before the first stars can possibly form, the big bang fire-ball

during the first few minutes after the creation event will

generate tiny amounts of boron and beryllium if, and only if, the

universe contains a significant amount of exotic matter.

Astronomers have confirmed that primordial boron and

beryllium exists in the amounts predicted by the big bang

theory and their measurements of the amount of exotic matter.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Scientific Evidence for A

“Big Bang” Creation Event - XVIII

24. Numbers of Population I, II, and III stars: The big bang

predicts that as the universe expands it will produce three

distinct populations of stars. At its current age the big bang also

predicts that astronomers should see certain specific numbers

and masses of the three different populations. Astronomers do

indeed see the predicted numbers and masses of stars for the

three different populations.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Scientific Evidence for A

“Big Bang” Creation Event - XIX

25. Population, locations, and types of black holes and

neutron stars: A big bang universe of the type that makes

possible a site suitable for the support of physical life will after

many billions of years of star burning produce a relatively

small population of stellar mass black holes and a somewhat

larger population of neutron stars in virtually every galaxy.

Large galaxies are expected to produce supermassive

(exceeding a million solar masses) black holes in their central

cores. Astronomers, indeed, observe the predicted

populations, locations, and types of black holes and neutron

stars.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Scientific Evidence for A

“Big Bang” Creation Event - XX

26. Dispersion of star clusters and galaxy clusters: The big

bang predicts that as the universe expands different types of

star clusters and galaxy clusters will disperse at specific rates

that will increase with time. It also predicts that the densest

star clusters will not disperse. However, the orbital velocities of

their stars about the cluster’s center will “evolve” toward a

predictable randomized condition known as virialization. The

virial times depend on the cluster mass and size and on the

individual masses of the stars. Astronomers observe the

dispersal rates and virial times predicted by the big bang.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Scientific Evidence for A

“Big Bang” Creation Event - XXI

27. Number and type of space-time dimensions: A big bang

universe of the type that makes possible a site suitable for the

support of physical life must begin within ten rapidly expanding

space-time dimensions. At about 10-43 seconds (about a ten

millionth of a trillionth of a trillionth of a second) after the

creation event six of the ten dimensions must cease expanding

while the other four continue to expand at a rapid rate. Several

experiments and calculations confirm that we live in such a

universe.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Scientific Evidence for A

“Big Bang” Creation Event - XXII

28. Masses and flavors of neutrinos: All currently viable big

bang models require that the dominant form of matter in the

universe be a form of exotic matter called “cold dark matter”.

Astronomers and physicists already know that neutrinos are

very plentiful in the universe and that they are “cold” and “dark”.

Recent experiments establish that neutrinos oscillate (that is,

transform) from one flavor or type to another (the three

neutrino flavors are electron, muon, and tau). This oscillation

implies that a neutrino particle must have a mass between a

few billionths and a millionth of an electron mass. Such a

range of masses for the neutrino satisfies the requirement for

the viable big bang models.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

Scientific Evidence for A

“Big Bang” Creation Event - XXIII

29. Populations and types of fundamental particles: In the big

bang the rapid cooling of the universe from a near infinitely

high temperature and a near infinitely dense state will generate

a zoo of different fundamental particles of predictable

properties and predictable populations. Particle accelerator

experiments which duplicate the temperature and density

conditions of the early universe have verified all the types and

populations of particles predicted within the energy limits of the

particle accelerators.

30 Cosmic density of protons and neutrons: Four independent

methods for determining the density of protons and neutrons in

the universe establish that the density measured is the same as

what the big bang predicts for a universe that contains the stars

and planets necessary for life.


Information gathered from hugh ross s books about god of the universe as well

The Star Declaring the Birth of Jesus

The star declaring the birth of Jesus was most assuredly a

super Novae explosion!


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