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Warm up

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Use the laws of exponents to simplify the following. Answer should be left in exponential form.

Laws of Exponents

The laws you used in the warm up with integer bases apply to all bases, even variable bases.

The laws also apply for all types of exponents, including fractions and decimals.

Let’s review the rules

and see them applied.

X5

- The expression is written and read as X to the 5th power.
- X is called the base of the expression.
- 5 called a power or exponent for the expression.
- The exponent, 5, tells us that we want X multiplied with its self 5 times
- Power or exponential form is X5
- x x x x x is Expanded form

- Identify the base of
- Identify the exponent of
- Is in exponential or expanded form?

Any base(s) raised to the zero power will always equal 1.

Examples

When two bases are multiplied we add the exponents of the bases.

Examples

If there are numbers in the expression we can multiple them.

Example

When we have an exponent raised to an exponent we multiple the exponents.

Example

If there are numbers or more than one variable, inside the parenthesis, they all get raised to the outside power. When we have we first simplify by ‘distributing’ the outside exponent inside, and then, since the two groups are multiplied, we added the exponents of like bases.

Examples

Use the laws of exponents to simplify the following. Answer should be left in exponential form.

When dividing with exponents we subtraction the exponents of common bases.

Examples

If there is no other base for you to divide with it is kept in the same place.

Examples

When we raising a fraction to a power, we can rewrite the fraction by raising everything on top by the outside exponent and everything on bottom to the outside exponent.

Examples

If we have a negative exponent we can write it as a positive by taking the reciprocal.

If the negative exponent is on the top of a fraction we can write it positive by simply moving it to the bottom of the fraction.

If the negative exponent is on the bottom of a fraction we can write it positive by moving it to the top of the fraction.

Examples

Fraction powers can be written as radicals, roots.

Practice