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1. Under German Control at end of 1941. North Africa. Importance Control of Mediterranean Sea, Suez Canal, Straights of Gibraltar Access to oil fields in the Middle East Open a Second Front. Rommel had control of Libya- had the British on the defensive in Egypt.

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Under German Control at end of 1941

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Under German Control

at end of 1941

North Africa

  • Importance

    • Control of Mediterranean Sea, Suez Canal, Straights of Gibraltar

    • Access to oil fields in the Middle East

    • Open a Second Front

Rommel had control of Libya-had the British on the defensive in Egypt.

Italians! Have no fear, Rommel is here to help dominate Africa!

Rommel, a German officer, teamed up with the Italians to push back the British with his tanks.

Well this stinks for us British! We better call in General Montgomery to clear things up….

Rommel, AKA the Desert Fox. (Relation to Megan???)

North Africa

  • Who:

    • Vichy French controlled Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia

    • Italy controlled Libya

    • British controlled Egypt

    • German forces

    • American forces

  • What

    • 1940 - Italy attacked British in Egypt -

    • 1942 Hitler sent Erwin Rommel a.k.a “the Desert Fox” to help

The North Africa Campaign: The Battle of El Alamein, 1942

Gen. Ernst Rommel,The “Desert Fox”

Gen. Bernard LawMontgomery(“Monty”)

Battle of El Alamein

Allied Supplies

  • British defeat Germans in Africa

  • Beat German General Erwin Rommel

  • Saved supply route

  • Cut Nazis off from oil

El Alamein – British (Montgomery) attack German’s (Rommel)

German’s are pushed out of Egypt to Libya and defeated in Jan. 1943

Turning Point – beginning of the end for Nazi in N. Africa

Why was Egypt so important ?

Battle of El Alamein

Allies “Pincer Strategy” – Advance from east and west to squeeze the Nazi’s out of North Africa

US (Eisenhower) from the west; British (Montgomery) from the east

May 1943 – Allies have all of N. Africa

What does this set up?

Operation Torch

**Allied Control of Mediterranean Sea - Can launch attack on Southern Europe

The Italian Campaign [“Operation Torch”]:Europe’s “Soft Underbelly”

  • Allies plan assault on weakest Axis area - North Africa - Nov. 1942-May 1943

  • George S. Patton leads American troops

  • Germans trapped in Tunisia - surrender over 275,000 troops.

Invasion of Italy, 1943

  • Combined British & American invasion of Italy didn’t go very well, but it stretched the German army very thin

The Battle for Sicily:June, 1943

General George S. Patton

Invasion of Italy

  • Allies attack Sicily

  • King Victor Emmanuel III fires Mussolini and has him arrested

  • New Italian government signs armistice

  • Allies meet tough resistance from Germans on Italian Peninsula

The Allies Liberate Rome:June 5, 1944

Gen. Eisenhower Gives the Orders for D-Day [“Operation Overlord”]

Invasion of France

  • Challenges

    • Atlantic Wall – series of coastal fortifications along the Atlantic coast built by the 3rd Reich to prevent invasion

    • English Channel


June 6, 1944

“all gave some, some gave all”

Deception at Calais

  • Elaborate Plan by Allies to Deceive Hitler into thinking attack would be at Calais, France, NOT Normandy

  • Discouraged Germans from reinforcing troops at Normandy

Sherman Tank made of Inflated Rubber

Normandy Landing (June 6, 1944)

German Prisoners

Higgins Landing Crafts

What was D Day?

  • D-day was the term used for the day of actual Allied soldier landings during wwii on Normandy, France

  • The attack had two phases.

    • Air assault

    • Landing of infantry/soldiers

  • Omaha beach was one of the worst landings that day

  • Why did this happen?

    • Nazi Germany was increasing its strangle hold on all of western Europe.

    • The Allies forces are calling for an offensive front.

    • Allies needed a way into Europe.

    • Using false radio conversations, the allies created confusion within the Nazi army, spreading the Nazi’s out all over France. Therefore allowing allies to enter through beach landings

    Facts (why was this battle so bloody)

    • 3,000,000 men to make the operation work

    • Over 5,000,000 tons of American equipment alone was shipped for preparation

    • Beach obstacles

    • 6.5 million land mines

    • Prior aircraft bombing.

    • Machine gun massacre

    • The weeks proceeding D-Day, the allies would perform bombing runs to destroy German railroad systems.

    • On D-day we had the air superiority… 13,000 planes

    • Unfortunately, on Omaha Beach, most of the bombs missed all the beach guns, making Omaha beach the bloodiest landing that day.

    Invasion of Normandy (D-Day), 1944

    • Allies invade France to free it from German control

    • Created 2 Front war for Germany

    • Germany will soon be overpowered by Allies

    D-Day Results

    • 3,000/150,000 Americans die on 1st day


    • 1 Million additional soldiers arrive within 1 month

    • September 1944, France is Liberated

    D-day movie

    • Total casualties in a single day 10,000+ start movie at 2:33

    The Liberation of Paris:August 25, 1944

    De Gaulle in Triumph!

    U. S. Troops in Paris, 1944

    The Battle of the Bulge:Hitler’s Last Offensive

    Dec. 16, 1944toJan. 28, 1945

    May 1945 – Hitler kills himself

    The End for Hitler and the Nazis

    Video –End of Mussolini

    Mussolini & His Mistress,Claretta Petacci Are Hung in Milan, 1945


    Hitler Commits Suicide April 30, 1945

    Cyanide & Pistols

    The Führer’s Bunker

    Mr. & Mrs. Hitler

    V-E Day (May 8, 1945)

    General Keitel

    V-E DayVictory Europe

    • V-E Day – May 8, 1945

      End of War in Europe

    • Hitler and Eva Braun committed suicide in his command bunker.

    • April 12 Roosevelt died - Who was president?

    V-E Day (May 8, 1945)

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