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Nutrition Management of Diabetes. Helpful tools you can use. Introduction. No one diabetic diet No special foods are required Goals of nutrition management: Blood sugar control Lose or maintain weight Promote heart health. A healthy diet for an adult. Each day have at least:

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Nutrition management of diabetes

Nutrition Management of Diabetes

Helpful tools you can use


  • No one diabetic diet

  • No special foods are required

  • Goals of nutrition management:

    • Blood sugar control

    • Lose or maintain weight

    • Promote heart health

A healthy diet for an adult
A healthy diet for an adult

Each day have at least:

  • 2 cups of non-starchy vegetables

  • 1½ cups of fruit

  • 5 ounces of grains, beans or starchy vegetables

  • 3 cups of low-fat or fat-free milk

  • 5 ounces of meat or meat substitutes

  • Small amounts of fat and sugar

Exchange list basics
Exchange List Basics

  • Based on standardized portion sizes that provide 15 grams of carbohydrates

  • Encourages consistency

  • Food Groups:

    • Carbohydrate

      • Starch, vegetables, fruit, milk

    • Meat and meat substitutes

    • Fat

    • Free foods

Carbohydrate containing foods
Carbohydrate Containing Foods

  • Starch/Bread

  • Vegetable – starchy and non-starchy

  • Fruit

  • Milk

  • One carbohydrate “serving” or “choice”

    = 15 grams carbohydrate

How much carbohydrate should you have
How much carbohydrate should you have?

At meals

  • 3 to 4 carb servings which is equal to

  • 45-60 grams of carbohydrate


  • 1 to 2 carbs servings which is equal to

  • 15-30 grams of carbohydrate

Meat meat substitute
Meat/Meat Substitute

  • Lean: skinless chicken, turkey, beef loin, pork loin, fish, egg whites, non-fat and low fat cheese

  • Medium-fat: Ground beef, dark meat chicken, fried chicken, ribs, eggs, mozzarella cheese

  • High-fat: Sausage, regular cheese (cheddar, Swiss, etc.), bologna, hot dogs, bacon

  • Plant-based: Peanut butter, beans, hummus, tofu, soy-based imitation meat products

Free foods
Free Foods

  • Drinks – Bouillon or fat-free broth, sugar free soda, coffee, tea, water

  • Reduced-fat foods – Nonstick cooking spray, fat-free mayonnaise and salad dressing, fat-free cream cheese and sour cream

  • Sugar-free condiments – jelly, syrup, gum, candy

  • Condiments – Ketchup, salsa, mustard, vinegar

  • Seasoning – Flavored extracts, lemon pepper, soy sauce, hot sauce

Starch list
Starch list

What counts as a serving?

In general…

  • ½ cup cooked cereal, grain or starchy vegetable

  • 1/3 cup cooked rice or pasta

  • 1 ounce of a bread product such as 1 slice of bread

  • ¼ ounce to 1 ounce of most snack foods

Fruit list
Fruit List

Fresh, frozen, canned and dried fruits and fruit juices are on the Fruits list.

In general, 1 fruit choice is:

  • ½ cup of canned or fresh fruit or unsweetened fruit juice

  • 1 small fresh fruit (4 ounces)

  • 2 tablespoons of dried fruit

Milk list
Milk List

Milks and yogurts are grouped in three categories based on the amount of fat they have:

  • fat-free/low-fat

  • reduced-fat

  • whole

Non starchy vegetable list
Non-starchy Vegetable List

In general, 1 non-starchy vegetable choice is:

  • ½ cup of cooked vegetables or vegetable juice

  • 1 cup of raw vegetables


  • Monounsaturated – Avocados, olives, almonds, walnuts, peanut butter, pecans, olive oil, peanut oil, canola oil

  • Polyunsaturated – Corn oil, sunflower oil, soy oil, tub margarine, mayonnaise, regular salad dressing, pumpkin seeds

  • Saturated – Butter, bacon, cream, sour cream, salt pork, lard, cream cheese, stick margarine

Nutrition facts label
Nutrition Facts Label

Total Carbohydrate 40 gmDietary Fiber6 gm

Sugars 0 gm

Starch____________34 gm

Total Carbohydrate = Fiber + Sugar + Starch

Nutrition facts activity

Nutrition Facts Activity

Choose a partner

Come to the table and find packages for two similar products

Work with your partner to complete the worksheet

What s the point
What’s the Point??

Unstable blood sugars


What s the point1
What’s the Point??

Stable blood sugars



  • Good nutrition is key to diabetes management

  • Practice

  • Be patient with yourself

Mediterranean diet
Mediterranean Diet

  • Lots of fresh fruits and vegetables including beans

  • Whole grains

  • Fish and seafood

  • Olive oil

  • Herbs, spices and vinegar

  • Wine

Let s taste
Let’s Taste!

  • White Bean and Tuna Salad

  • Baked Pita Chips