Nutrition management of diabetes
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Nutrition Management of Diabetes. Helpful tools you can use. Introduction. No one diabetic diet No special foods are required Goals of nutrition management: Blood sugar control Lose or maintain weight Promote heart health. A healthy diet for an adult. Each day have at least:

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Nutrition Management of Diabetes

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Nutrition Management of Diabetes

Helpful tools you can use


  • No one diabetic diet

  • No special foods are required

  • Goals of nutrition management:

    • Blood sugar control

    • Lose or maintain weight

    • Promote heart health

A healthy diet for an adult

Each day have at least:

  • 2 cups of non-starchy vegetables

  • 1½ cups of fruit

  • 5 ounces of grains, beans or starchy vegetables

  • 3 cups of low-fat or fat-free milk

  • 5 ounces of meat or meat substitutes

  • Small amounts of fat and sugar

Healthy Eating Guide

Exchange List Basics

  • Based on standardized portion sizes that provide 15 grams of carbohydrates

  • Encourages consistency

  • Food Groups:

    • Carbohydrate

      • Starch, vegetables, fruit, milk

    • Meat and meat substitutes

    • Fat

    • Free foods

Carbohydrate Containing Foods

  • Starch/Bread

  • Vegetable – starchy and non-starchy

  • Fruit

  • Milk

  • One carbohydrate “serving” or “choice”

    = 15 grams carbohydrate

How much carbohydrate should you have?

At meals

  • 3 to 4 carb servings which is equal to

  • 45-60 grams of carbohydrate


  • 1 to 2 carbs servings which is equal to

  • 15-30 grams of carbohydrate

Meat/Meat Substitute

  • Lean: skinless chicken, turkey, beef loin, pork loin, fish, egg whites, non-fat and low fat cheese

  • Medium-fat: Ground beef, dark meat chicken, fried chicken, ribs, eggs, mozzarella cheese

  • High-fat: Sausage, regular cheese (cheddar, Swiss, etc.), bologna, hot dogs, bacon

  • Plant-based: Peanut butter, beans, hummus, tofu, soy-based imitation meat products

Free Foods

  • Drinks – Bouillon or fat-free broth, sugar free soda, coffee, tea, water

  • Reduced-fat foods – Nonstick cooking spray, fat-free mayonnaise and salad dressing, fat-free cream cheese and sour cream

  • Sugar-free condiments – jelly, syrup, gum, candy

  • Condiments – Ketchup, salsa, mustard, vinegar

  • Seasoning – Flavored extracts, lemon pepper, soy sauce, hot sauce

Starch list

What counts as a serving?

In general…

  • ½ cup cooked cereal, grain or starchy vegetable

  • 1/3 cup cooked rice or pasta

  • 1 ounce of a bread product such as 1 slice of bread

  • ¼ ounce to 1 ounce of most snack foods

Fruit List

Fresh, frozen, canned and dried fruits and fruit juices are on the Fruits list.

In general, 1 fruit choice is:

  • ½ cup of canned or fresh fruit or unsweetened fruit juice

  • 1 small fresh fruit (4 ounces)

  • 2 tablespoons of dried fruit

Milk List

Milks and yogurts are grouped in three categories based on the amount of fat they have:

  • fat-free/low-fat

  • reduced-fat

  • whole

Non-starchy Vegetable List

In general, 1 non-starchy vegetable choice is:

  • ½ cup of cooked vegetables or vegetable juice

  • 1 cup of raw vegetables


  • Monounsaturated – Avocados, olives, almonds, walnuts, peanut butter, pecans, olive oil, peanut oil, canola oil

  • Polyunsaturated – Corn oil, sunflower oil, soy oil, tub margarine, mayonnaise, regular salad dressing, pumpkin seeds

  • Saturated – Butter, bacon, cream, sour cream, salt pork, lard, cream cheese, stick margarine

Alternative Sweeteners

Nutrition Facts


Nutrition Facts Label

Total Carbohydrate40 gmDietary Fiber6 gm

Sugars 0 gm

Starch____________34 gm

Total Carbohydrate = Fiber + Sugar + Starch

Ingredient List

Nutrition Facts Activity

Choose a partner

Come to the table and find packages for two similar products

Work with your partner to complete the worksheet

What’s the Point??

Unstable blood sugars


What’s the Point??

Stable blood sugars



  • Good nutrition is key to diabetes management

  • Practice

  • Be patient with yourself

Mediterranean Diet

  • Lots of fresh fruits and vegetables including beans

  • Whole grains

  • Fish and seafood

  • Olive oil

  • Herbs, spices and vinegar

  • Wine

Let’s Taste!

  • White Bean and Tuna Salad

  • Baked Pita Chips

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